Management Fina Exam Paper Essay
To provide some context, my mother ere her own tomato plants when I was in High School; she explained that you must constantly monitor and nurture each level of the plant in order for it to thrive as a whole. For example, you must always consider the appropriate height at which to suspend the lights above your plants: If they are too high, the lower layers of the plant won’t receive adequate light for necessary photosynthesis; if the lights are too low, however, the top layers of the plant will wither under the intensity.
There are many other factors that must be considered before and during the growth process: hat type and intensity of light bulb to use; which variety of soil or compost to utilize; which nutrients should be added at specific times to foster ideal growth conditions; what temperature should the water be as well as when ; how often to water; what the costs are versus the benefits; and finally, should you utilize economies of scale by continuing to grow tomatoes after covering the costs of your first batch.
Before I continue with this metaphor, I must emphasize that I am not a botanist nor do I have a
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By constructing a strategic plan, the leader should outline all of the organization’s goals as well the actions necessary to achieve them; that is, the goals should be SMART—specific, measurable, attainable, results oriented, and time bound. As Locke explains, goal setting helps direct attention, regulate effort, increase persistence, and foster plans of action. By setting Laos that are SMART, a good leader can Inspire participation & motivate employees by minimizing role ambiguity & role conflict while simultaneously uniting the employees for a common purpose.
Thus, Management by Objectives (MOB) appears to be the ideal managerial system; the idea is to get individual employees to “own” a piece of the collective effort by encouraging participation into decision-making, goal setting, and objective feedback. Yet at the same time, a good leader must prioritize employee recommendations and act decisively in a manner that best suits the goals and Interests of the organization.
More Importantly, a good leader should always ensure that he or she Is putting their Invaluable time to the best use; modern organizations have grown so large that one-on-one management theories like Management by Walking Around (MBA) are effectively obsolete; thus, one must learn to decentralized their organization to some degree and delegate authority to lower-level employees. Although this seems to clash with the idea of trickle-down management, I believe it actually supports my position: the leader of an departments. This relates to the flowering plant metaphor in several respects.
First, one must choose the specific style of leadership they are looking for and consider the impact of this managerial style down the organizational hierarchy before they even generate a list of candidates; this is much like selecting the appropriate type of light bulb (I. E. Halogen vs.. High-pressure sodium) before selecting a specific brand or price constraint. Next, the leader of the organization should consider how much authority to delegate to the chosen manager; for instance, a given type/wattage of light bulb can only provide enough intensity to sustain a certain level of growth.
Thus, as the size of the organization increases, a manager must hire more managers to maintain a prescribed activity level. Yet even once the appropriate managerial style and employees have been selected, they rely heavily on central leadership; once the light bulbs are in place, you must monitor them and provide further assistance & support. For example, you must decide specifically how many hours of light are needed each day for maximum growth and either manually or systematically turn them on and off.
Although the ideal leader should seek to decentralized decision- aging authority, their subordinate managers still rely heavily on their leader for direction, motivation, and above all else their wages. With respect to wages, consider that light bulbs will not function if the grower doesn’t maintain his electrical bill. Moreover, it is common for light bulbs to burn out and thus need replacement; the same occurs in organizations like the “Big 4” accounting firms, which are notorious for high employee turnover.
A model leader should have a firm grasp of Herrings motivator-hygiene model, as well as Dam’s Equity Theory, in order to foster an equitable and motivated workforce. This is where ethical principles take precedence in an organization: for instance, it would seem appropriate to give one manager a higher salary than another because he works longer hours or has been delegated a larger share decision-making authority within the organization; however, it wouldn’t be ethical to compensate two managers differently based on the Leader-Member Exchange Model as this has a great potential to affect overall employee morale, commitment, and performance.
Rather, organizations should focus on transformational leadership with an emphasis on accountability, mutual trust, and continuous performance improvement. Although transactional leadership may be effective in the short run, it is clear that intrinsic rewards reinforce the aforementioned concepts and ultimately have more effect on employee morale and performance than do extrinsic rewards. Again, the leader should make his vision and respective strategic plan clear from the beginning of his or her tenure and embrace the principles of Total Quality Management (TTS).
In relation to the flowering plant metaphor, this would entail making constant changes and improvements to your grow set-up between “batches” (which correspond to accounting periods) in order to earn and benefit from previous mistakes or miscalculations. At the same time, TTS requires a certain degree of foresight; in other words, leaders should strive to eliminate costly rework and potentially product recalls by doing things right the first time.
Thus, the tomato grower must innovative anticipate potential circumstances that can delay or halt production and proactively take measures to prevent such crises; thus, he or she should consider using a pesticide to ward off predatory continuous supply of electricity. Thus good leaders must always have contingency Lana and avoid satisfying and/or “cutting corners”; if the tomato grower decides to buy a relatively inexpensive brand of light bulb that is known to short-out, he or she should consider purchasing additional back-up bulbs and should expect to have larger managerial roles.
Being a leader entails understanding and using one’s own power and influence not Just within their organization, but also on other stakeholders including the community at-large, trade unions, creditors, suppliers, and obviously customers. The first order of business should always include making a profit, followed by obeying all legal and ethical responsibilities. This is more important of Multinational Corporations, which manage operations and/or deliver services in multiple countries.
For instance, although it may be commonplace to bribe local officials to secure contracts in underdeveloped countries, the practice is considered to be highly unethical and is a violation of both American and international law. Another example is the case of Yahoo CEO Scott Thompson, who was recently caught padding his resume with a falsified bachelor’s degree in computer science from Stonewall College; although he claims this was a mere “inadvertent error”, Yahoo takeovers are already calling for his employment termination.
This brings me to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, a term that essentially did not exist in the early sass’s; it refers to the idea that an organization is obligated to go above and beyond simply following the law and making a profit. Although CARS was initially considered to be nothing more than window-dressing for large corporations, the BP Scandal emphasized the importance of being a good corporate citizen (especially as defined by the host country’s expectations. Many people perceived CEO Tony Harvard’s apologetic commercials as insincere and cold. On the other hand, companies like Mike have succeeded in improving their international image by embracing global CARS labor standards in developing nations. With respect to the tomato metaphor, a large American-owned tomato plantation in China (the world’s #1 producer of tomatoes) should consider re-investing a certain percentage of their profits into the regional economy to, for instance, feed the impoverished or improve literacy rates.
In doing so, the corporation would be able to improve/bolster it’s global image and potentially pave the way for better future relations with the Chinese overspent (I. E. Lower property taxes, large quotas on production, etc. ) Although both your lectures and the textbook do an excellent Job of articulating managerial theory, it is clear to me that I have a long way to go in terms of developing my managerial skills. This became clear to me during the Service Learning Project; prior to meeting and working with my group, I assumed that the project would be, quite frankly, a “cakewalk. However, it soon became clear to me that my personality clashed with that of one of my teammates; rather than take a dominant approach to Andre the situation, I basically allowed myself to get walked all over. I understand now (albeit a little late in the semester) that my future success as a leader lies in my personal skills. Thus, when placed in leadership roles in the future, I intend to embrace Miscellany’s Need Theory by placing the need for affiliation above all else, followed by the need for achievement, and finally followed by the need for power.
I now realize the importance the “forming” stage of groups; before a group can achieve perspective, and personality of every other member to achieve some sense of cohesiveness and unity. Like my father always taught me, never approach a complete stranger without briefly considering their background or current mental state; for example, you never know if a complete stranger Just broke up with their spouse, experienced the death of a family member, or even won the lottery.
Although these are extreme situations, the point I am trying to make is that people relate better and thus groups function more effectively when the members take time to get reasonably acquainted. Yet, an effective leader must draw the line at some point [omit the word to’] & progress from the colonization of the forming stage, address the leadership structure delegate responsibilities during the morning stage, and eventually start producing results in the performing phase.
However, I still believe that many managerial skills are learned on the Job: I often think of management as the game of basketball, whereby it is easy to delineate a generic plan of action during the pep-talk in the locker-room before the game (for instance, for your team to put up 90 points while aggressively “crashing” the boards); yet it is clear that the game can quickly change direction at any time because people think and act differently when they are under pressure. Thus, I still maintain that the best style of leadership is a “trickle down” approach, whereby one treats the organization as a delicate, flowering plant.