Management functions crucial in education Essay
The term ‘management is derived from the ERP to manage’, which can mean, to handle, to control, to make and keep submissive, to organize, to alter by manipulation or to carry out for a purpose. However it is important to carefully examine the writings of management scholars and practitioners in order to come up with a proper definition of management. Agility (1981) defines the term management as “the process of integrating resources and tasks towards the achievement of set goals of the organization. ” Donald J.
Slough says “Management Is the art and science of decision making and leadership to achieve set goals In an organization. Plunked and Tater (1983) define management as “the process of setting and achieving goals through the execution evolve basic management functions that utilize human financial and material resource. ” From the above definitions it can be safely concluded that management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and evaluating to accomplish the predetermined objectives of an institution through the coordinated use of human and material resources.
In general the various functions of educational management can be said to be as follows; C] The first unction Is the assurance that sound policies, goals and
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Planning sketches a complete mental picture of a thing, it identifies school goals and alternatives. Of impotence planning maps out courses of action that will commit individuals, departments and the entire school for months or even years to come. It involves the determination of resources that will be needed. Some scholars will identify budgeting as separate function but it is important to note that planning also identifies the number, types and quality of personnel that will be needed to achieve school goals. The head will then need to identify different strategies by which to achieve the set goals and objectives.
Through the planning process the head aims to manage an efficient and an effective school. Efficient means using minimum resources to get maximum results on time. Effective means to achieve the set of objectives hence processes such as budgeting are done in this function. The third part of the planning stage is to decide on an appropriate strategy on how to accomplish the goals set. When planning it is critical to make a flexible plan. The existence of variables and uncertainties make decision-making and planning a necessity. There should be enough scope of change to cater for any unforeseen situations.
There are many variables – the priorities may change due to unforeseen circumstances; equipment and grants may not become available as expected; personnel may be posted out or they may proceed on leave; all these variable contributing to the non-implementation of decisions. Planning can be summarized as is a series of steps that involve: Defining objectives (Setting objectives or goals) Determining the current status with respect to the objectives (Being aware of opportunities) (Analyzing the situation for external factors and forecasting future trends.
Generation of future scenarios) Identifying alternative (Best alternative to accomplish our objectives) ]Choosing an alternative (Selecting the course of action to be pursued) Formulating support plans (Arranging for human and material resources) Implementing the plan (Action stage also involves evaluation) Planning helps the educational managers and the institution by: 0 Effective and faster achievement of results through an active and forward thinking rather than a passive and reactive posture. Focusing the attention of the managers and teachers on objectives that can give a performance oriented sense of direction to the institution. 0 Minimizing costs of performance both in terms of time and money. 0 Setting priorities and focus their energies on important things first. 0 Contributing to efficacy of other managerial functions. 0 Emphasizing the strengths of the institution and minimizing or overcoming the weaknesses. Providing a basis for control in an institution. 0 Dealing effectively with changes in the external environment by helping to anticipate problems and opportunities 2. ORGANIZING After planning educational managers have to assemble the resources needed to achieve the goals of the school (organize). Cole, C. A (1995) says” organizing is the combination of necessary human effort, material equipments in systematic and effective correlation to accomplish the desired results. ” Salaams, G (1995) defines organizing as “the process of bringing together physical and human resources and establishing productive relationships between them for the achievements of specific goal. ” Therefore organizing function develops the structures necessary to reach goals and objectives of the school.
Once the needed resources have been embroiled the head will seek to establish working departments and other identifiable units by listening similar and related duties or subjects. Each unit, departments or person will have clearly defined roles and functions to perform. Under educational administration, heads organize: (a) Ideas and principles into school systems, curricular and co-curricular activities, time schedules, norms of achievement; (b) Human beings into schools, classes, committees, groups, school staff, the inspecting staff. C) Material into buildings, furniture and equipment, libraries, laboratories, workshops, museums and art galleries. Organizing deals with the division of work or facilitation, various activities are assigned to different people who are specialists in that area. Specialization improves efficiency. Thus, organization helps in division of work and assigning duties to different people. Organizing is the function employed to employees with overall objectives of the school and combines individuals into departments. In short Organizing involves putting in order of priority and preference of the resources which are available.
An Action Plan is needed in which actions and activities are scheduled. In order to give the plan ‘teeth’, targets are set. These argues should be quite easily attainable within a short period of time. 2. 3 STAFFING. After organizing all the work school heads have to move on to the function of staffing. Some scholars do not recognize this as an educational management function whist Henry Payola (1961) suggests that staffing falls under the directing function. However staffing is important in schools not necessarily that the school head is concerned with locating prospective employees created by the organizing function.
Instead the school head reviews the credential of the candidates for the Jobs and tries to match he demands of the Job with the ability and qualifications of the applicant. After some candidates have been employed the school head is expected to give the new recruits induction, train them for their particular Jobs and keep teachers qualified through regular and appropriate staff development programs, courses or workshops. Staffing also involves the development and implementation of a system of performance appraisal and providing feedback for improvement on performance.
The outcomes of the appraisals must be reported back to the teachers. Such feedbacks will enable searchers to know how they are performing and also the areas they need to improve. 2. 4 DIRECTING According Reese (1973) Directing is the third management function that comes after organizing. Ernest Dale says “Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. ” It means instructing, guiding and inspiring people in the organization to achieve its goals or activating individuals towards attaining the objectives of the organization.
Patsy (1981) points out that directing involve the development of willingness to work with zeal and confidence. It also goes o provide adequate guidelines to complete the task. When directing heads have to show the ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner. They should also understand that each person has a different level of motivation. In this function of management it is important to develop effective communication structures. Supervising and motivating subordinates are also important function in directing. . 2. 4. SUPERVISING The head will need to supervise the work which is being done, ensuring that activities are carried out in line with agreed standards, and taking steps to correct problems. The purpose of supervision is to bring about a continuing improvement in the instructional program. Supervision advises, stimulates, explains, leads, guides and assists. It is important to supervise because it limits the rate of doing mistakes since correction is readily available. 2. 4. 2 MOTIVATION Leading in any institution involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging.
It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees. According to Stoner teal (1997), directing also involves influencing and motivating subordinates to perform essential tasks. Involving the subordinates in seceding policies and plans help in motivation. The term motivation aims to make the man to be cheerfully willing to do the Job he or she is wanted to do. Face to face their best. Communication, down, up and across is also of great importance to the motivation of organization members. However availability of materials, finance, knowledge and skills of the manager will adversely affect directing in an institution. . 5 CONTROLLING Effective control is an important element in educational administration. According to Stoner teal (1997) “Controlling involves measuring and monitoring performance, impairing results with plans and taking corrective action when required. ” Mentoring (1973) defines controlling as “a process of establishing performance standards based on the objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary. ” In other words controlling indicates how far the set goals have been achieved.
It depends upon accurate information and feedback that is, what is happening? With respect to what should be happening? In short the control function deals with the difference between planned and actual performance. Educational administrators must be sure that the actions of their subordinates move the school towards its stated objectives. The main activities in controlling in the educational system are 0 Establishing standards of performance 0 Measuring current performance of the school 0 Comparing performance to the standards originally set 0 . Institutional Budget: Financing in terms of income and expenditure. Institutional Supplies: Stationery and material equipment. 0 Library: Maintenance and upgrading. 0 Teaching-learning Process: 0 Accounts and School Records 0 Discipline: Staff and students Taking corrective measures if any deviations have been observed Though the controlling function, the head of school keeps the school on track in all areas. Minored for the head to effectively manage the school he or she has to pay particular attention to the following points. 2. 5. EVALUATION Evaluating is an important function that falls under controlling. Evaluating includes the process of monitoring the teaching-learning process and providing feedback. The head of the school is accountable to the parents, teachers, local community, government departments as well as the management or the managing committee of he institution. It is also important to evaluate the curricular process and outcomes as this is a very important function at all levels of education in view of the accountability of the institution to satisfy the expectations and demands of the various stakeholders.
Evaluation is the educational setting incorporates a variety of operations and feedback as well as internal and external indicators concerning individual students, class, stream, departments or the whole institution. This function is aimed at finding out whether the institution has been effective in achieving the set vying another important function which is recording and reporting. 2. 5. 1. 1 RECORDING Recording is an essential elements of educational management which makes it easy for the head to be answerable to the parents, the higher authorities and the society.