Management Information System Essay
MIS at Qatar Airways Enhances Productivity 9 6 Conclusion and Recommendation 10 7 Reference 10 Fast developments in technology made the market more competitive and the organizations are become more information driven to compete in the market. As a result the information became more critical in the operations and management of organizations. The availability of the right information at the right time is very crucial in the performance of various critical managerial functions such as organizing, planning, control and leading. However, the collection of coordinated and integrated information is a challenge to the organizations.
An information system (IS) interconnects almost all components of the organization and provides most appropriate and relevant information for better operations and managerial decisions for the survival of the organizations in this highly competitive market environment (Scott, 1986). Management Information System (MIS) is a computer based information system focuses on information technology (IT) and that interconnects and integrates all legacy information systems and databases in the organization to enhance the business operations of the organization.
The MIS makes the organization and people more creative and productive by providing timely relevant information in consistent with the business objectives of the organization. However, the successful and effective delivery of this
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This report deeply investigates into the various information systems in Qatar Airways that come under the integrated MIS application as an Enterprises resource planning (ERP) system, and its uses. This report analyses how this MIS provide information to various departments and provide support to various levels of management and its decision making processes. This report also evaluates the effectiveness of MIS in managing various business processes in the organization and how it improves the service efficiency, productivity and profitability of the organization.
This reports ends tit recommendations for effective utilization of MIS and also for its further enhancements. 2 Management Information System (MIS) MIS is fundamentally used for providing managerial support to the managers and to the organization. An information system (IS) basically used for inputting, storing data relevant to an environment or a problem and also used for processing the stored interrelated data into information for the managerial purpose. This processed information is then communicated and made available to different department in the organization for apt decision making processes (Web. 5). According to George M. Scott, “an MIS is a comprehensive and coordinated set of information systems which are rationally integrated and which transform data into information in a variety of ways to enhance productivity in conformance with managers’ style and characteristics on the basis of established quality criteria” (Scott, 1986, up 97-100). With the concerned managers, in which the style and the characteristics of the managers have a great impact.
The MIS can be considered as an essential component embedded in the overall internal control of the business processes includes technologies, documents, application of people and different procedures hat implemented by the managers for solving various business issues. The MIS is integrated with other information system subsets that are implemented in the operational processes of the organization and is used for analyzing and communicating information processed by that IS (Lauded and Lauded, 2007).
MIS is generally used for representing the information and knowledge management techniques focused to the automation of various decision making processes of managers, egg. Expert systems (SEES), Decision support systems (ADS) (Lauded and Lauded, 2007). 2. 1 Characteristics of Information The information that collected from various sources should be useful for decision making purpose if it maintain certain characteristics such as: the information should be relevant and reliable to the problem in hand, and should be timely, cost effective, correct, complete, exhaustive, usable and aggregative.
In other hand the information collected should not meet the requirements of the company and the management and also it will misguide the managers in their decision making processes (Baby, et al. , 2009). 2. 2 Value of Information The information normally has no values if it is not relevant, reliable, timely, correct ND complete, and also if it is not utilized in the right way for the right purpose. The value of the information in this sense completely depends on what situation and purpose it is used, when it is used and who it is used, and also can be considered as similar to other commodities (Baby, et al. 2009). 2. 3 Role of Information in Decision making The decision making processes normally pass through various stages, such as intelligence, design, choice and review. The intelligence stage the organization collect, classify and process the data in consistent with the business objectives. The processed interrelated data provide information and that is analyses through various means at the design stage. The most valuable, relevant, reliable and economically feasible information is selected by the managers for the decision making processes.
The implemented decision is reviewed through collecting information and feedbacks from various stakeholders and departments for maintenance, if required (Baby, et al. , 2009). 3 Various Levels of Management and Decision Making Process There are basically three levels of management and decision making processes in an organization, such as operational level, tactic level (middle level), and strategic level (top level). The nature of management decision and the information required for decision making are varying in each level (Peptides, 2004).
The basic level is the operational level, where the day-to-day activities are taking place, such as transaction of commodities, recording attendance of employees etc. The managers at this level are having short-term information need for accomplishing their daily activities – egg. Provide overtime to employees, order more stock etc. Transaction Processing System TAPS) is using at this level for processing data and providing information. The information gathered through TAPS is using for taking short-term decisions by the level managers (Lauded and Lauded, 2007). The second level of management is known as tactic level or the middle level managers.
The information required at this level is managerial information, and is for making take short-term decisions and plans to meet the business objectives of the organization. Information about the sales analysis of past one year, or yearly profit of the company etc are the managerial information. Management Information System plays vital role in meeting the information needs of this level. MIS become central to the organization due to its high potential in meeting the information needs of the organization. As a result, majority of big organizations are keeping separate MIS department for meeting the needs of managerial information.
Decision Support Systems are also used at this level for helping the managers in their decision making processes (Lauded and Lauded, 2007). Figure 1 : Information systems and various levels of Organization Source: Reference (Lauded and Lauded, 2007) The third level of the management in an organization is the strategic level, where the pop most managers are making the strategic decisions or making policies for meeting company objectives. The information provided to this level is not accessible by the managers of other two levels.
Expert information System (IIS) meet the information needs of this level and ADS helps managers for making appropriate and timely strategic decision or making policies (Lauded and Lauded, 2007). 4 The Organizational Context – Qatar Airways Qatar Airways is started in the year of 1994 by the State of Qatar with one aircraft. Currently, Qatar Airways is having 68 new-generation aircrafts and is planned to acquire 110 aircrafts by 2015 (Web. 01). The Qatar Airways fly to 80 destinations across the globe and connects people, business, places and leisure capitals across all continents and Far East (Web. 2). Qatar Airways is honored with “5 – Star” ranking for their excellent service, and also the cabin crews were ranked “Best in the Middle East” by ‘Ashtray’ for past six years for their customer service excellence, through a survey carried out above 15 million passengers (Web. 01). These prove that the Qatar Airways is one of the great successful and fast growing aviation industry in the world. They have achieved this through timely and appropriate managerial decisions that have taken based on the excellent information provided through their efficient MIS in place in the organization.
Qatar Airways is conducting a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) programmer connected with their icosahedra-partners known as “Privilege Club”, meant for providing greatest care and excellent services to their customers (Web. 03). The members of the club and their family members are provided with best privileged benefits on a personalized way intended to provide a rewarding and unforgettable traveling experience (Web. 4). The Smiles earned through traveling and purchases with Qatar Airways and their partners can be redeemed for other purchases with the company and their icosahedra-partners.
The heart of the CRM programmer is a centralized database integrated with the main MIS, which is used for storing customer details, their purchase history, their personal interests etc for the real-time customer management and also for various other The main integrated Management Information System using in Qatar Airways is the PROS O&D Revenue optimization solution suit, developed by the PROS Holiday Inc, headquartered in Huston, Texas. This information system is linked with many other subset information systems to improve the performance of the organization, thus the productivity and profitability.
The PROS O&D Revenue Optimization Solution suit is fundamentally meant for developing appropriate pricing strategies as well as for developing appropriate business strategies and policies for the improved performance of the organization. This they achieved through making optimized pricing decisions and also improving the business processes of the organization for the better financial performance (Aryl, et al. , 2009). The strategic information revived by the MIS suit can be accessed by the Top-level managers for the strategy or policy making processes. 5. The MIS in Qatar Airways is comprehensive MIS fundamentally contains various information systems that are capable of providing information to all levels of the organization. The PROS O&D software is also contains various information system subsets such as: (Aryl, et al. , 2009). BIBS Software – which is an aviation control suit developed by BIBS IT company of India. This is an integrated solution for the aviation industry and it interconnects various other sub information systems, such as: (Aryl, et al. 2009). Departure Control Systems (DOCS), which is highly sensitive in controlling the aircrafts and its departures.
This provide information to the middle level managers Baggage Reconciliation System (BRB) – Operational Level System Quality Information System (IIS) – Which provide information to the top level managers about the quality of the service that provided by the Qatar Airways, and helps the managers to develop new quality policy and standards Cargo Management System (SMS) – This provide information to the tactic level for making short-term decisions to solve various intermediate issues, and also provide information to the strategic level for developing new policies and strategies for improving the Cargo service of the organization.
Supply Chain Management System (SCM) – The BIBS software is used for the managing the needs of agents, icosahedra-partners, suppliers and customers and also for the managing the procurements. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – PROS Real-Time Customer Management System (RTFM) – this is used for forecasting the Dynamic pricing based on Passenger Name Records (PAN). The PROS RTFM analyses the trends of the passenger and various market attributes to target the right customer with right price at the right time.
This provide information to the middle level for dynamic pricing and to the top level for developing new pricing strategies (Aryl, et al. , 2009). Enterprises Resource Planning System (ERP) – This integrates all information systems that are implemented and applied in various departments of Qatar Airways. On-Line Transaction Processing System (ALTO) – This is implemented and applied in the Operational level of the organization for recording information about various transactions and also producing information about these transactions to the top levels. This performs variety of tasks such as: (Aryl, et al. 2009). Provide mostly updates Record many small Transactions Store Raw data Consistency From these it can be clearly seen that the MIS implemented and applied in Qatar Airways is comprehensive in its nature, as it incorporates many subsets of information systems. 5. 2 MIS in Qatar Airways is strictly Coordinated The integrated MIS in Qatar Airways is strictly coordinated in such way that it ensures the recording and processing of data, office automation processes, people management, intelligence and decision making processes are carrying out effectively.
ADS are applied in such a way that the other business components are coordinated very effectively to produce appropriate decisions and business excellence. The central MIS is coordinated effectively to ensure that the information can be communicated and flow back and forth among the subsystems and to the central MIS. This ensures the effectiveness of information systems (Aryl, et al. , 2009), (Scott, 1986). 5. 3 MIS in Qatar Airways is Integrated The central MIS and other subsystems in Qatar Airways are integrated to duplication of processes and data, and also to provide more relevant, reliable, timely and omelet information.
The Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP) system that implemented in the Qatar Airways ensures the integration of all information systems and databases that connected to the MIS. That covers all functional areas and departments such as marketing dept. , sales dept. , finance and accounting dept etc. As a result of the ERP implementation the MIS performs all core business activities of the company, and provides excellent customer services increasing corporate image of the company (Aryl, et al. , 2009), (Scott, 1986). 5. 4 Data Security and Management in Qatar Airways
The Qatar Airways is maintaining two types of security for their data – Network security and Database security. The network security at Qatar Airways is managed by the SITS Transport Communications and IT Solutions for a contract of IIS$mom. They are maintaining a very advanced network infrastructure for telecommunications. This interconnects all locations of Airlines to its reservation system, through the extensively and completely managed network. This has accomplished through TCP/IP protocol suit that run over the IP – VPN (Virtual Private Network) of SITS (Aryl, et al. 009), (Bannered and Cascaded, 1995). The Qatar Airways has an integrated central database, which is held by Steel through a technology partnership agreement, and the database is managed by the IT department of Qatar Airways. They ensure protection, security and comprehensive connectivity for the Airlines and its various locations and departments (Aryl, et al. , 2009). 5. 5 MIS at Qatar Airways Enhances Productivity The integrated MIS in Qatar Airways is central to the company for providing excellent services to their customers, individuals, partners and other external organizations.
This is very helpful for early identification of external threats and internal problems. This is also very helpful in predicting and identifying the forth-coming opportunities of the company. MIS also provide apt solutions for enhancing the business processes of the organization and also keep supports to their normal management processes (Bannered and Cascaded, 1995). The MIS in Qatar Airways provides various facilities to the organization for enhancing their productivity, such as: (Aryl, et al. Facilitate Dynamic Pricing Enhance the total efficiency of the organization That analyses the market and passenger attributes Helps to target the right customer and segment with right price Helps to develop proper sales plan and business strategy This shows that the MIS using in Qatar Airways facilitate various business functions of the organization to increase the productivity and thus the profitability of the organization. 6 Conclusion and Recommendation The MIS implemented in Qatar Airways is fully integrated and comprehensive.
This is incorporated with various subsystems connecting various department of the organization. The integration of various subsystems in MIS is done through Enterprises Resource Planning, which eliminates the duplication of the data and processes. The MIS is centrally coordinated to ensure the storing and processing of data, data and information flow among various subsystems and departments of the organization, and also provide appropriate support to the managers on their decision making processes.