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Management Information Systems

The traditional animation process involved a huge number of individual drawings created by animation artists. It started with a story board providing a visual outline of the action and dialog, but required artists to fill enough pictures to create the Illusion of smooth action when the pictures were projected on a screen at 24 frames per second. Computerized animation also starts with storyboard sketches and dialog but proceeds with the creation of computerized models. The 112,000 frames in Toy Story contained more than 400 separate three-dimensional models of characters, ropes, and sets.

These models describe the shape of the object as well as the motion controls that animators use to create movement and expressions. Toy Story characters were animated using more than 700 controls, such as separate controls for moving different parts of a character’s eyebrow. Next Is the animation step, In which choreographers place the models In key frames or poses and the computer uses interpolation methods to create the frames between the poses that make the animation seem smooth. If necessary, an animator can modify the computer generated Ramee.

Next comes the shading step, in which the computer adds colors, finishes, and textures to the programs that do this are

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called shade’s. The 112,000 complex, realistic frames in Toy Story contained more than 400 models, more than 1,500 Render shade’s, and over 2,000 texture maps. Part of Pixie’s animation tool kit is a library of surface appearances including wood, metal, fabric, glass, hair, and skin. The next step is lighting. Crating a photorealism appearance requires the ability to identify, locate, and control a series of

Case Study: Paxar: Creating Computerized Animations light sources throughout any scene. The treatment of light includes simulating the reflection and absorption of light by the various types of surfaces in the scene. The final step is rendering in which software creates a finished image by computing every pixel in each frame. Even with today’s workstations, the computations for Just one frame take an average of three hours to produce the incredible detail that gives Pixie’s films a unique three-dimensional appearance. Final images can be stored on film or on CD-ROOM.

A key aspect of computerized animation is the impact it has on the people doing the work. Previously, animation was done through a laborious totally manual process of drawing each frame. Now, the same work can be done much faster using a computer, but some of the people who always did the drawings have not accommodated to computerizing. Very few of the old-time animators do computerized animation, and every animator or technical director who Joins Paxar starts with a three-month training course in its methods and technology.

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