collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves
What is the value of information?
its directly linked to how it helps deciison makers achieve their organization’s goals
What is an Information System?
A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective (THIS PROCESS COULD BE MANUAL OR COMPUTERIZED)
computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities
computer programs that govern the operation of the computer
an organized collection of facts and information, typically consisting of two or more related data files
the electronic transmission of signals for communications which enables organizations to carry out their processes and tasks
the most important element in most CBIS; includes people who manage, run, program, and maintain the system
includes the strategies, policies, methods and rules for using the CBIS; procedures for operations, maintenance, security
What is systems development?
The activity of creating new business systems or modifying existing business systems using internal or external resources
What are the 5 Systems Development Stages?
Investigation, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Maintenance & review IADIM
a formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
a series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse & storage, production, finished product storage, outboun logistics, marketing & sales, and customer service
major understandings and assumptions of a business or other organization
how organizations plan for, implement, and handle change
a measure of how widely technology is spread throughout an organization
is the exten to which technology permeates an area or department
technology acceptance model TAM
specifies the factors that can lead to higher acceptance and usage of technology in an organization
a significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition
Factors that lead firms to seek competitive advantage
rivalry among existing competitors, threats of new entrants, threat of substitute produts and services, bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers (cost efficiency is generally not a motive for seeking competitive advantage)
three stages in the use of “IS”
cost reduction and productivity, competitive advantage, and performance based management
Performance is used to evaluate the contributions (value & cost) of the IS (six phases)
Productivity= (Output/Input) * 100 OI
Return on Investment (ROI)
Customer Awareness and satisfaction
Total Cost of Ownership
Roles, Functions, and careers in “IS”
Executive management, Operationss, Systems Development, Support
A computer is a device that
Accepts input, Processes data, Stores data,Produces output
A computer system includes
Hardware—the physical components
Software—the programs or lists of instructions
Architecture or configuration means
is the design of the computer (what the computer consists of)
is the technical detail about each component (how fast is the printer)
Types of computers
Portable (Laptop, Notebook, Tablet)
Other Pointing Devices
Touch sensitive screens
Optical Data Readers
Point-of-Sale (POS) Devices
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Devices
Eight bits is a byte. Each byte represents a unique character.
How many are there?
Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes
Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes
Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes
Terabyte (TB) is about one trillion bytes
What are the two most important components of personal computer hardware?
Microprocessor (CPU) and the memory *both directly affect the price and performance
What is the microprocessor or CPU
is an integrated circuit or chip on the main circuit board inside the computer. It is made up of:
Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
Its speed is determined by:
Clock Speed/Machine cycle
Word size or Wordlength
Physical characteristics (distance and resistance
Random Access Memory) is temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on.
Read-Only Memory) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.
Types of processing
Multicore microprocessor – combines two or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload
Parallel processing – A form of multiprocessing that speeds processing by linking several processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel.
Grid computing – use a collection of computers often owned by multiple organizations, to work in a coordinated manner
Storage Access Methods
Sequential Access – The retrieval method in which data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored. (tape drives)
Direct Access – The retrieval method in which data can be retrieved without the need to read and discard other data.
SAN (Storage Area Networks)
The technology that provides high-speed connections between data-storage devices and computers over a network
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data, allowing the system to create a “reconstruction map” so that if a hard drive fails, the system can rebuild lost data.
What is software?
is the instructions and data that direct the computer to accomplish the task. It can refer to a single program or a package
helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks.
helps the user carry out a variety of tasks.
Systems Software Operating Systems
Perform common computer hardware functions
Provide a user interface
Manage system memory
Manage processing tasks
Provide networking capability
Control access to system resources
Application software examples
Personal Productivity Applications
Database Heirarchy from biggest to smallest
Database, files, records, fields, character
Data Modeling Key Considerations
Content – What data should be collected, and at what cost?
Access – What data should be provided to which users and when?
Logical structure – How should data be arranged so it makes sense to a given user?
Physical organization – Where should data be physically located?
Selecting – data manipulation that eliminates rows according to certain criteria
Projecting – data manipulation that eliminates columns in a table
Joining – data manipulation that combines two or more tables
Database Management Systems
A group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and its users and other application programs.
What is a DBA (database administration)
the role of the database administrator (DBA) is to plan, design, create, operate, secure, monitor, and maintain databases
Selecting a DBMS
Number of Users
a database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company’s processes, products, and customers.
a subset of a data warehouse
an information analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse. Bottom-up approach
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
the software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspectives. Top-down approach.
Gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations
a continuous process involving the legal and ethical collection of information about competitors, its analysis, and controlled dissemination of information to decision makers
the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by “hostile” intelligence gatherers
the process of capturing a company’s collective expertise wherever it resides, and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff
Character Level Formats
Font size (point size)
Bold Italicize Underline Strikethrough Superscript/ subscript
Paragraph Level Format
Left, Double, First, or hanging indent
Document level formats
Margins, paper size, paper orientation, vertical alignment
Field (equals what?)
describes the entity; an attribute or characteristic of the entity (equals column)
Record (equals what?)
description of each entity; set of related field values
collection of fields and group of related records
collection of related tables and other objects
What are two parts of a table?
1) Structure 2) Data
in the main table
field value must be unique
field value is required
in the related table
field value is not necessarily unique
field value is required
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