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Management Information Systems Final Exam-Gary Templeton

Transaction
Any business event that generates data worth capturing and storing in a database.
ERP II Systems
Interorganizational ERP systems that provide Web-enabled links between key business systems (such as inventory and production) of a company and its customers, suppliers, distributors, and others.
Enterprise application integration (EAI) system
A system that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connects applications together.
Key-indicator reports
Reports that summarize the performance of critical activities.
Ad-hoc (on-demand) reports
Nonroutine reports that often contain special information that is not included in routine reports.
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
An Information system that integrates various automated factory systems
Exception reports
Reports that include only information that exceeds certain threshold standards.
Comparative reports
Reports that compare performances of different business units or time periods.
Routine Reports
Reports produced at scheduled intervals.
Functional area information systems (FAISs)
A system that provides information to managers (usually mid-level) in the functional areas, in order to support managerial tasks of planning, organizing, and controlling operations.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
Information system that takes a business process view of the overall organization to integrate the planning, management, and use of all of an organization’s resources, employing a common software platform and database
Drill-down reports
Reports that show a greater level of detail than is included in routine reports.
Trans-border data flow
The flow of corporate data across nations’ borders.
Batch processing
TPS that processes data in batches at fixed periodic intervals.
Best practices
The most successful solutions of problem-solving methods for achieving a business outcome.
Natural language processing (NLP)
Communicating with a computer in the user’s native language.
Neural network
A system of programs and data structures that approximates the operation of the human brain.
Decision support systems (DSS)
Business intelligence systems that combine models and data in an attempt to solve semistructured and some unstructured problems with extensive user involvement.
Goal-seeking analysis
Study that attempts to find the value of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of output.
Virtual reality
Interactive, computer-generated, three-dimensional graphics delivered to the user through a head-mounted display.
Sensitivity analysis
The study of the impact changes in one (or more) parts of a model have on other parts.
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
The process of performing complex, multidimensional analyses of data stored in a database or data warehouse, typically using graphical software tools.
Data mining
The process of searching for valuable business information in a large database, data warehouse, or data mart.
Decision room
A face-to-face setting for a group of DSS in which terminals are available to the participants.
What-if analysis
The study of the impact of change in the assumptions (input data) on the proposed solution.
Productivity
The ratio between the inputs to a process and the outputs from that process.
Multidimensional data analysis
The process of performing complex, multidimensional analyses of data stored in a database or data warehouse, typically using graphical software tools.
Geographic information system
A computer-based system for capturing, integrating, manipulating, and displaying data using digitized maps.
Management
A process by which organizational goals are achieved through the use of resources.
Turing test
A test for artificial intelligence in which a human interviewer, conversing with both an unseen human being and an unseen computer, cannot determine which is which; named for English mathematician Alan Turing.
Model (in decision making)
A simplified representation, or abstraction, of reality.
Intelligent systems (IS)
A term that describes the various commercial applications of artificial intelligence.
Digital dashboard
A business intelligence system that provides access to timely information and direct access to management reports.
Corporate performance management
The area of business intelligence involved with monitoring and managing an organization’s performance, according to key performance indicators (KPIs) such as revenue, return on investment (ROI), overhead, and operational costs.
Natural language generation
Technology that enables computers to produce ordinary language by “voice” or on the screen so that people can understand computers more easily. (also voice synthesis)
Business intelligence (BI)
Information systems that assist managers in decision making by allowing extensive, user-driven data analysis via a variety of modeling techniques, or by providing easy, intuitive access to structured information.
Natural language understanding
The ability of a computer to comprehend instructions given in ordinary language via the keyboard of by voice. (also speech or voice recognition)
Organizational decision support system (ODSS)
A DSS-BI system that focuses on an organizational task or activity involving a sequence of operations and decision makers.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
A subfield of computer science concerned with studying the thought processes of humans and representing the effects of those processes via machines.
Group decision support system (GDSS)
An interactive computer-based system that supports the process of finding solutions by a group of decision makers.
Logical system design
Design Abstract specification of what a computer system will do.
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
Traditional structured framework, used for large IT projects, that consists of sequential processes by which information systems are developed.
Direct conversion
Implementation in which the old system is cut off and the new system is turned on at a certain point in time.
Application portfolio
The set of recommended applications resulting from the planning and justification process in application development.
Project
A short-term effort to create a specific business-related outcome.
Systems analysis
The examination of the business problem that the organization plans to solve with an information system.
Request for proposal (RFP)
Document that is sent to potential vendors inviting them to submit a proposal describing their software package and how it would meet the company’s needs.
Systems analysts
IS professionals who specialize in analyzing and designing information systems.
Project management
A directed effort to plan, organize, and manage resources to bring about the successful achievement of specific information systems goals.
Programmers
IS professionals who modify existing computer programs or write new computer programs to satisfy user requirements.
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Development approach that uses specialized tools to automate many of the tasks in the SDLC; upper CASE tools automate the early stages of the SDLC, and lower CASE tools automate the later stages.
Rapid application development (RAD)
A development method that uses special tools and an iterative approach to rapidly produce a high-quality system.
IT strategic plan
A set of long-range goals that describe the IT infrastructure and major IT initiatives needed to achieve the goals of the organization.
Systems design
Describes how the new system will provide a solution to the business problem.
Outsourcing
Use of outside contractors or external organizations to acquire IT services.
Service level agreements (SLAs)
Formal agreements regarding the division of work between a company and its vendors.
Integrated CASE (ICASE) tools
CASE tools that provide links between upper CASE and lower CASE tools.
Programming
The translation of a system’s design specifications into computer code.
Prototyping
Approach that defines an initial list of user requirements, builds a prototype system, and then improves the system in several iterations based on users’ feedback.
Agile development
A software development methodology that delivers functionality in rapid iterations, measured in weeks, requiring frequent communication, development, testing, and delivery.
Application service provider (ASP)
An agent or vendor who assembles the software needed by enterprises and packages them with outsourced development, operations, maintenance, and other services.
Object-oriented development
A systems development methodology that begins with aspects of the real world that must be modeled to perform a task.
Systems stakeholders
All people who are affected by changes in information systems.
Physical system design
Design Actual physical specifications that state how a computer system will perform its functions.
Prototype
A small-scale working model of an entire system or a model that contains only the components of the new system that are of most interest to the users.
Scope creep
Adding functions to an information system after the protect has begun.
Feasibility study
Investigation that gauges the probability of successor a proposed project and provides a rough assessment of the prefect’s feasibility.
Phased conversion
Implementation process that introduces components of the new system in stages, until the entire new system is operational.
IS project management
A directed effort to plan, organize, and manage resources to bring about the successful achievement of specific information systems goals.
Implementation
The process of converting from an old computer system to a new one.
Technical specialists
Experts on a certain type of technology, such as databases or telecommunications.
Three constraints of project management
Time, cost, and scope.
IT steering committee
A committee, comprised of a group of managers and staff representing various organizational units, set up to establish IT priorities and to ensure that the MIS function is meeting the needs of the enterprise.
Joint application design (JAD)
A group-based tool for collecting user requirements and creating system designs.
Component-based development
A software development methodology that uses standard components to build applications.
Pilot conversion
Implementation process that introduces the new system in one part of the organization on a trial basis; when the new system is working properly, it is introduced in other parts of the organization.

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