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Management Information Systems Test 2

Analog Signals
continuous waves that transmit information by altering the amplitude and frequency of the waves
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
data transmission technology that uses packet switching and allows for almost unlimited bandwidth on demand
Bandwidth
the range of frequencies available in a communications channel, stated in bits per second
Bridge
a communications processor that connects two networks of the same type
Broadband
a transmission speed ranging from 256 Kbps up to several terabits per second
Broadcast Media
communications channels that use electromagnetic media (the “airwaves”) to transmit data
Cable Media
communications channels that use physical wires or cable to transmit data and information
Cable Modems
a modem that operates over coaxial cable and offers high-speed access to the Internet or corporate intranets
Clients
computers, such as users’ personal computers, that use any of the services provided by servers
Client/Server Computing
form of distributed processing in which some machines (servers) perform computing functions for end-user PCs (clients)
Coaxial Cable
insulated copper wire; used to carry high-speed data traffic and television signals
Communications Channels
pathway for communicating data from one location to another
Communications Processors
hardware devices that support data transmission and reception across a telecommunications system
Computer Network
a system connecting communications media, hardware, and software needed by two or more computer systems and/or devices
Digital Signals
a discrete pulse, either on or off, that conveys information in a binary form
Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)
a high-speed, digital data-transmission technology using existing analog telephone lines
Distributed Processing
network architecture that divides processing work between two or more computers, linked together in a network
Enterprise Network
a network composed of interconnected multiple LANs and WANs
Ethernet
a common local area network protocol
Fiber-optics Cables
thousands of very thin filaments of glass fibers, surrounded by cladding, that transmit information via light pulses generated by lasers
File Server
a computer that contains various software and data files for a local area network, and contains the network operating system
Front-end Processor
a small secondary computer, dedicated solely to communication, that manages all routing communications with peripheral devices
Gateway
a communications processor that connects dissimilar networks by translating from one set of protocols to another
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP)
the communications standard used to transfer pages across the WWW portion of the Internet; defines how messages are formulated and transmitted
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
a high-speed technology that allows users to transfer voice, video, image, and data simultaneously, over existing telephone lines
Internet Protocol (IP)
a set of rules responsible for disassembling, delivering, and reassembling packets over the Internet
Local Area Network (LAN)
a network that connects communications devices in a limited geographical region (for example, a building), so that every user device on the network can communicate with every other device
Modem
device that converts signals from anolog to digital and vice versa
Multiplexer
electronic device that allows a single communications channel to carry data transmissions simultaneously from many sources
Narrowband
a transmission speed up to 64Kbps that can now reach speeds of up to 2 Mbps
Network Interface Card
a type of computer hardware that allows devices in a local area network to physically connect to the LAN’s communications medium
Packet Switching
the transmission technology that breaks up blocks of text into packets
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Processing
a type of client/server distributed processing that allows two or more computers to pool their resources, making each computer both a client and a server
Protocol
the set of rules and procedures governing transmission across a network
Router
a communications processor that routes messages through several connected LANs or to a wide area network
Servers
a computer that provides access to various network services, such as printing, data, and communications
Switch
a special-purpose computer that allows devices in a LAN to communicate directly with each other
Synchonous Optical Network (SONET)
an interface standard for transporting digital signals over fiber-optic lines; allows the integration of transmissions from multiple vendors
T-Carrier System
a digital transmission system that defines circuits that operate at different rates, all of which are multiples of the basic Kbps used to transport a single voice call
Telecommunications System
the hardware and software that transmit information from one location to another
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
a file transfer protocol that can send large files of information across sometimes unreliable networks with assurance that the data will arrive uncorrupted
Twisted-Pair Wire
strands of copper wire twitsted together in pairs
Value-Added Network (VAN)
a private, data-only network that is managed by an outside third party and used by multiple organizations to obtain economies in the cost of network service and network management
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
a network, generally provided by common carriers, that covers a wide geographic area
Affinity Portal
a web site that offers a single point of entry to an entire community of affiliated interests
Aggregator
web sites that provide collections of content from the Web
AJAX
a web development technique that allows portions of Web pages to reload with fresh data instead of requiring the entire Web page to reload
Blog (short for weblog)
a personal web site, open to the public, in which the site creator expresses his feelings or opinions
Blogosphere
the term for the millions of blogs on the Web
Chat Room
a virtual meeting place where groups of regulars come to “gab” electronically
Collaboration
mutual efforts by two or more individuals who perform activities in order to accomplish certain tasks
Commercial (Public) Portal
a web site that offers fairly routine content for diverse audiences; offers customization only at the user interface
Corporate Portal
a web site that provides a single point of access to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization
Distance Learning (DL)
learning situations in which teachers and students do not meet face to face
E-Learning
learning supported by the Web; can be done inside traditional classrooms or in virtual classrooms
Groupware
software prodcuts that support groups of people who collaborate on a common task or goal and that provide a way for groups to share resources
Industrywide Portal
a Web-based gateway to information and knowledge for an entire industry
Internet Telephony
the use of the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls
Mashup
a web site that takes content from a number of other web sites and mixes them together to create a new kind of content
Metasearch Engine
a computer program that searches several engines at once and integrates the findings of the various search engines to answer queries posted by users
Podcast
a digital audio file that is distributed over the Web using Really Simple Syndication for playback on portable media players or personal computers
Portal
a Web-based peronalized gateway to information and knowledge that provides information from disparate information systems and the Internet, using advanced search and indexing techniques
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
allows anyone to syndicate (publish) her blog, or any other content, to anyone who has an interest in subscribing
Search Engine
a computer program that searches for specific information by key words and reports the results
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
an IT architecture that makes it possible to construct business applications using Web services, which can be reused across an organization in other applications
Social Networking
web sites that allow users to upload their content to the Web in the form of text (for example, blogs), voice (for example, podcasts), images, and videos (for example, videocasts)
Tag
a keyword or term, chosen by users, that describes a piece of information (for example, a blog, a picture, an article, or a video clip)
Telecommuting
a work arrangement wherby employees work at home, at the customer’s premises, in special workplaces, or while traveling, usually using a computer linked to their place of employment
Teleconferencing
the use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference
Unified Communications
hardware and software platform that simplifies and integrates all forms of communications – voice, e-mail, instant messaging, location, and videoconferencing – across an organization
Videocast
a digital video file that is distributed over the Web using Really Simple Syndication for playback on portable media players or personal computers
Videoconference
a virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see and hear participants at other locations and can share data and graphics by electronic means
Virtual Collaboration
the use of digital technologies that enable organizations or individuals to collaboratively plan, design, develop, manage, and research products, services, and innovative information systems and electronic commerce applications
Virtual Group (Team)
a work group whose members are in differenct locations and who meet electronically
Virtual Universities
online universities from which students take classes from home or an off-site location via the Internet
Voice over Internet Protocol
a communications system in which analog voice signals are digitzed, sectioned into packets, and then sent over the Internet
Web 2.0
a loose collection of information technologies and applications and the web sites that use them; the web sites enrich the user experience by encouraging user participation, social interaction, and collaboration
Web Services
self-contained business/consumber modular applications delivered over the Internet
Wiki
a web site on which anyone can post material and make changes quickly without using difficult commands
Work Group
two or more individuals who act together to perform some task, on either a permanent or temporary basis
Workflow
the movement of information as it flows through the sequence of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures
Auction
a competitive process in which either a seller solicits consecutive bids from buyers or a buyer solicits bids from sellers, and prices are determined dynamically be competitive bidding
Banners
electronic billboards, which typically contain a short text or graphical message to promote a product or a vendor
Bricks-and-Mortar Organizations
organizations in which the product, the process and the delivery agent are all physical
Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce (B2B)
electronic commerce in which both the sellers adn the buyers are business organizations
Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce (B2C)
electronic commerce in which the sellers are organizations and the buyers are individuals; also know as e-tailing
Business-to-Employee Electronic Commerce (B2E)
an organization using electronic commerce internally to provide information and services to its employees
Business Model
the method by which a company generates revenue to sustain itself
Buy-Side Marketplace
B2B model in which organizations buy needed products or services from other organizations electronically, often through a reverse auction
Channel Conflict
the alienation of existing distributors when a company decides to sell to customers directly online
Clicks-and-Mortar Organizations
organizations that do business in both the physical and digital dimensions
Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce (C2C)
electronic commerce in which both the buyer and the seller are individuals (not businesses)
Cyberbanking
various banking activities conducted electronically from home, a business, or on the road instead of at a physical bank location
Cybersquatting
registering domain names in the hope of selling them later at a higher price
Digital Wallet (e-wallet)
a software component in which a user stores secured personal and credit card information for one-click reuse
Disintermediation
elimination of intermediaries in electronic commerce
E-Business
a broader definition of electronic commerce, including buying and selling of goods and services, and also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, conducting e-learning, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization
E-Government
the use of electronic commerce to deliver information and public services to citizens, business partners, and suppliers of government entities, and those working in the public sector
E-Procurement
purchasing by using electronic support
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce)
the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks, including the Internet
Electronic Mall
a collection of individual shops under one Internet address
Electronic Marketplace
a virtual market space on the Web where many buyers and many sellers conduct electronic business activities
Electronic Payment Systems
computer-based systems that allow customers to pay for goods and services electronically, rather than writing a check or using cash
Electronic Retailing (E-Tailing)
the direct sale of products and services through storefronts or electronic malls, usually designed around an electronic catalog format and/or auctions
Electronic Storefront
the Web site of single company, with its own Internet address, at which orders can be placed
Forward Auctions
an auction that sellers use as a selling channel to many potential buyers; the highest bidder wins the items
Functional Exchanges
electronic marketplace where needed services such as temporary help or extra office space are traded on an “as-needed” basis
Group Purchasing
the aggregation of purchasing orders from many buyers so that a volume discount can be obtained
Horizontal Exchanges
electronic marketplaces that connect buyers and sellers across many industries, used mainly for MRO materials
Mobile Commerce (M-Commerce)
electronic commerce conducted in a wireless environment
Multichanneling
a process in which a company integrates its online and offline channels
Permission Marketing
method of marketing that asks consumers to give their permission to voluntarily accept online advertising and e-mail
Person-to-Person Payments
a form of electronic cash that enables the transfer of funds between two individuals, or between an individual and a business, without the use of a credit card
Pop-Up Ad
ad advertisement that is automatically launched by some trigger and appears in front of the active window
Pop-Under Ad
an advertisement that is automatically launched by some trigger and appears underneath the active window
Public Exchanges
electronic marketplace in which there are many sellers and many buyers, and entry is open to all; it is frequently owned and operated by a third party
Reverse Auction
an auction in which one buyer, usually an organization, seeks to buy a product or a service, and suppliers submit bids; the lowest bidder wins
Sell-Side Marketplace
B2B model in which organizations sell to other organizations from their own private e-marketplace and/or from a third-party site
Smart Cards
a card that contains a microprocessor (chip) that enables the card to store a considerable amount of information (including stored funds) and to conduct processing
Spamming
indiscriminate distribution of e-mail without the receiver’s permission
Stored-Value Money Card
a form of electronic cash on which a fixed amount of prepaid money is stored; the amount is reduced each time the card is used
Vertical Exchanges
electronic marketplaces that connect buyers and sellers in a given industry
Viral Marketing
online word-of-mouth marketing
Virtual Bank
a banking institution dedicated solely to Internet transactions
Virtual Organizations
organizations in which the product, the process, and the delivery agent are all digital; also called pure-play organizations
Bluetooth
chip technology that enables short-range connection (data and voice) between wireless devices
Cellular Telephones
telephones that use radio waves to provide two-way communication
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a wireless system that uses satellites to enable users to determine their position anywhere on earth
Hotspot
a small geographical perimeter within which a wireless access point provides service to a number of users
Infrared
a type of wireless transmission that uses red light not commonly visible to human eyes
Location-Based Commerce (L-Commerce)
mobile commerce transactions targeted to individuals in specific locations at specific times
Mesh Network
a network composed of motes in the physical environment that “wake up” at intervals to transmit data to their nearest neighbor mote
Microbrowser
Internet browsers with a small file size that can work withing the low-memory constraints of wireless devices and the low bandwidths of wireless networks
Microwave Transmission
a wireless system that uses microwaves for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communication
Mobile Computing
a real-time wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments, such as the Internet or an intranet
Mobile Portal
a portal that aggregates and provides content and services for mobile users
Mobile Wallet
a technology that allows users to make purchases with a single click form their mobile devices
Near-Field Communications (NFC)
the smallest of the short-range wireless networks that is designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards
Personal Area Network
a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person
Pervasive Computing
a computer environment in which virtually every object has processing power with wireless or wired connections to a global network
Propagation Delay
the one-quarter second transmission delay in communication to and from GEO satellites
Radio-Frequency Indentification (RFID) Technology
a wireless technology that allows manufacturers to attach tags with antennas and computer chips on goods and then track their movement through radio signals
Radio Transmission
transmission that uses radio-wave frequencies to send data directly between transmitters and receivers
Satellite Radio
a wireless system that offers uninterrupted, near CD-quality music that is beamed to your radio from satellites
Satellite Transmission
a wireless transmission system that uses satellites for broadcast communications
Short Message Service (SMS)
a service provided by digital cell phones that can send and receive short text messages (up to 160 characters in length)
Telemetry
the wireless transmission and receipt of data gathered from remote sensors
Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
a high-bandwidth wireless technology with transmissions speeds in excess of 100 Mbps that can be used for such applications as streaming multimedia from a personal computer to a television
Voice Portal
a web site with an audio interface
Wireless
telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves carry the signal between communicating devices
Wireless 911
911 emergency calls made with wireless devices
Wireless Access Point
an antenna connecting a mobile device to a wired local area network
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
the standard that enables wireless devices with tiny display screens, low-bandwidth connections, and minimal memory to access Web-based information and services
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
a set of standards for wireless local area networks based on the IEEE 802.11 standard
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
a computer network in a limited geographical area that uses wireless transmission for communication
Wireless Network Interface Card (NIC)
a device that has a built-in radio and antenna and is essential to enable a computer to have wireless communication capabilities
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
networks of interconnected, battery-powered, wireless sensors placed in the physical environment

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