As such according to Henry Payola functions of management, is broken into five areas allow for it to handle the strategic, tactical and operational decision for the organization. Management Is a set of activities designed to achieve organizational objectives by using Its resources efficiently and effectively In a changing environment. Resources are used to accomplish the managers intended purpose . A manager is someone who coordinates and oversee the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.
Managers’ plays critical roles that can be best described by looking at functions, roles essential skills, systems and contingencies. According to Henry Payola , a French businessman , he argued that managers roles can be best described by cooking at the functions they play at work -He highlighted that managers perform five key functions , planning , organizing , leading , commanding and controlling . Today these functions have been revised to four that is planning , organizing , leading and controlling.
The planning process involves the defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities . Planning also requires managers to evaluate where the company is currently, and it will be in the future. The planning process Is carried out
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This is whereby the organizational resources are allocated or embroiled and responsibility delegated in order to achieve organizational objectives. The best way to handle the necessary tasks and disbursement of information within the company Is the delegation of authority and responsibility. The manager Is there to determine what needs to be done, how I will be done and who Is to do It. Managers must also organism all Its resources in order to implement the course of action it determined in the planning process. Moreover, the manager lead his or her subordinates .
This involves influencing other people ‘s behavior, individually and as a group towards the achievement of desired objectives . Motivating employees can be in monetary form that Is offering a reasonable salary and non-monetary form where workers are given fringe benefits and such as cars. Employees that are highly motivated generally go above beyond in their performance thereby playing a vital role in the company achieving its goals efficiently and effectively. Controlling is another function performed by a manager as advocated by Henry Payola . T is a process of monitoring performance against expected standards, and then taking corrective and preventing action If necessary. Managers should not lower their standards in an effort to solve performance problems . Rather he or she should directly address the subordinates ship for achieving harmony among individual efforts towards the accomplishment of organizational goals In order for managers to be considered successful; it must attain the goals and objectives of the organizations. However, Payola ‘s research on functions performed by managers made a contribution as it is still relevant today.
His contention that management is a continuous process beginning with planning ending with controlling also remains popular today. In addition management students can now analyses the management process today. However, Henry Payola theory was criticized for creating the impression that the management process is more rational and orderly that it really is. Payola functions therefore were viewed as inadequate and to be backed up with concepts, techniques, and situational faintness from modern approaches.
Another criticism of POLL functions is that it might be idea but that they do not accurately depict the day to day actions of the actual managers. The typical day in the life of a manager at any level can be fragmented and hectic, with the constant threat of priorities dictated by the law of the trivial many and important few that is the 80/20 rule. However, the general conclusion seems to be that the POLL functions of management still provide a very useful way of classifying the activities managers engage in as they attempt to achieve organizational goals.
SYSTEMS APPROACH This approach compensated for the two main limitations of the classical approaches first, that they ignored the relationship between the organization and its external environment and, second that they focused on specific aspects of other considerations. To overcome this, management scholars based their conception on a general approach called systems theories. A system, can be defined as a set of interrelated elements functions as a whole. If one part is removed, the nature of the system is changed as well. A business is also a system that operates in a specific environment .
A business organization obtains resources or inputs from the environment in the form of people, physical resources, capital and information . A system has its characteristics such as open system as opposed to closed system, synergy and entropy. The systems approach implies that an organization is an open system, which has a specific relationship with its environment for feedback, resources and for disposal of the finished product. Organizations are not self- sufficient, nor are they self -contained. They exchange resources with and dependent upon the external environment.
In this regard, the manager sought systematic management that would arrange the workplace, secure proper flows of materials, and facilitate the performance of human effort in order to achieve predictable results. The interdependence leads too complex relationship between the business and its environment, which becomes more complex as factors over which management has little or no control, such as technological innovation and social changes. These changes may influence manager’s actions within as well as the outside organization. Manager should know how to deal with the developments, vents and the trends in the organization .
At the other extreme is a closed system, which is self-supporting and can exist independently of a particular environment. It is the manager ‘s role again to align it’s ‘organization which it operates in such a way Systems approach made a great contribution as forces managers to view their organization as a part of the whole as it encourages managers to focus on better communication and cooperation within the organization. It makes managers acutely aware of that good internal management of the organization may not be enough to ensure survival . Forces management to be aware of how the environment affects specific parts of the organization. Another positive aspect of systems is that it tries to integrate various management theories into broader framework to solve managerial problems. However, it is important to note that this framework is not without its critics . Let is argued that system is rigid, if there is any change in the environment, it will react quite slowly and this approach is good for manufacturing industries not service industries such as Connect wireless which require to adopt to the external environment.
Moreover, the system is a theoretical approach to management. The way an organization actually works and solves its managerial problems by applying different technique and methods has no appeal in the theory. Also, the exact relationship between internal and external environment of the organization is not defined. Consequently, the relationship amongst parts of the organizations’ emphasized upon but the exact nature of interdependence is not defined. In conclusion, because of the influence of systems approach, managers now have a greater precipitation for the importance of seeing the whole picture.
If workers are skilled, participative style of management or behavioral theory can be effective but if workers are unskilled the classical theory will be more appropriate. Contingency is a viewpoint that argues that appropriate managerial actions depends on the particular parameters of the situation. Hence , rather than seeking universal principles that apply to every situation , contingency theory attempts to identify contingency principles that prescribe actions to take depending on the characteristics of the situation . Different situation calls for different decisions . There is no best way of doing things universally in all situations.
Managers try to direct the available techniques and principles of the various approaches to management towards a specific situation in order to realize the goals of the organization as productive as possible. The theory developed when managers applied principles of management to different problem solving situations and concluded that these principles could not be universally applied to every situation . Various principles and mathematical tools like statistics and operations approaches to management towards specific situation in the goals of the organization as productively as possible. Resume a pre-designed structure of the organization but adopts a structure that helps the organization adopts to the environment. Also, it is an integration of different schools of thought, classical, behavioral and systems approach. It also helps to devise motivational and leadership approaches to get the best out of organization workers. Autocratic style may be adapted to deal with unskilled workers and a participative style to deal with unskilled workers. Moreover, it is pragmatic in tauter as solution to every problem is found after analysis situation.
It follows the technique of multivariate analysis, contingency thinking is a practical extension of the systems approach . Assuming that systems thinking is a unifying synthetic force in management thought, the contingency approach promises to add practical direction. However, contingency approach is criticized for creating the impression that the organization is a captive of its environment if such were strictly the case attempts to manage the organization would be in vain , organization are subject to a combination f environmental forces and management practices.
Moreover, it does not follow the concept on universality of principles which often apply to specific management. In conclusion, contingency approach by Joan Woodward, depending on the type of situation and contingency, the management would devise appropriate strategies to adequately handle the situation . Contingencies are also used in helping managers identify the situation. These include training, the technology used by the organization and the organization ‘s external environment and the organization ‘s own capabilities, managers and workers.