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Management Sciences

Polytechnic: Polytechnic marketing Is a type of global marketing in which companies attempt to spread out the appeal of their products or services among multiple countries. It occurs when a business decides to broaden its operations and focus on sales outside of its home country. The focus is no longer placed on domestic sales, with International sales being a welcome addition. Rather, International sales are thought of as a key part of the business that deserves independence. Polytechnic marketing is typically considered one of the steps in global business integration.

It tends to follow ethnocentric marketing, where the company has an overseas presence but does not give overseas branches Independence or the ability to create their own marketing. After polytechnic Is the final global marketing form, known as geocentric. Geocentric marketing standardizes products for markets that include entire nations but adapts these products wherever necessary in one complete global strategy. E. G. : Pakistan needs to diversify its exports not only in terms of commodities but also In terms of markets.

Raw cotton, Textile products and Cotton yarn, Rice, Leather and leather reduce, Carpets and rugs, Tents, Synthetic textiles, surgical instruments and Sports goods are produce in Pakistan at border the excess

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inventory export USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Hong Kong, Dublin and Saudi Arabia so the Pakistan marketing connected with the International market. Ethnocentric: Ethnocentric is a term that is “sometimes associated with attitudes of national arrogance or assumptions of national superiority. The overall feeling of operations, of an ethnocentrism company is that one means of manufacturing and marketing is enough. Ethnocentric companies assume that products and practices that succeed In he home country will ultimately be successful anywhere. These companies are also lead by the notion that the products or services that advance in the home country are superior products. Ethnocentric companies often take a standardized approached to marketing, thinking that products that do well In the home country will automatically do well anywhere without any kind of modifications.

Outside of the home country little research is done and no major modifications are made to products. This Idea can be successful but the Idea now is to not go in an ethnocentric direction. A company should be able to adapt to international environments in order o be an effective global competitor. Being ethnocentric Is referred to as judging others’ cultures based on the standards of one’s own; languages, customs and religions are the most often compared. Ethnocentric individuals believe that they are better than other individuals for reasons based solely on their heritage.

Clearly, this practice Is related to problems of both racism and prejudice. While many people may recognize the problems, they may not realize that ethnocentrism occurs everywhere and everyday at both the local and political levels. E. G. : McDonald is the best example n Pakistan when they offer their product in Pakistan they knows Pakistani people not use those product which is prohibited in Islam after completion their research they offer the hall product In Pakistan. Geocentric: 1 OFF international activities, that is, to expand their business operations internationally.

This international scope of business activity helps firms target larger consumer audiences, achieve increased sales, reap benefits from economies of scale through global production, and keep pace with internationalization competitors. However, this internationalization outlook has also brought organizational, planning, and marketing halogens to firms, which must manage their international growth effectively. A geocentric orientation reflects a globally integrated strategy where the mother firm assumes a supervising role with the purpose of reaping opportunities on a global scale through global coordination of local activities.

Subsidiaries of the multinational enterprise are not distinct entities but rather cooperate with each other in order to exploit market opportunities across the world. E. G. : The Pakistani subsidiary of an American packaged food firm may act as a supplier of cheaper raw materials to a sister subsidiary in the United Kingdom whereas the latter may transfer production know-how to other subsidiaries in Asia. Thus, all subsidiaries Jointly work toward a common goal: the minimization of business objectives for the global firm.

For firms that follow the geocentric orientation, national distinctiveness of markets, consumers, or employees is not relevant since the entire world is a potential market. This means that such a firm aims at the servicing of identical, inter-countries market segments through a standardized marketing offering that cuts across national boundaries. Thus, parochial considerations and, consequently, locally adapted practices are ignored in favor of a coordinated set of globally integrated activities.

Additional functional implications of this orientation refer to production (e. G. , centralization of global production in Just one country with low labor cost) or manpower (e. G. , the recruitment of the best executives wherever necessary, irrespective of their national background). Recognition: A Recognition approach to hiring selects management personnel from within a region of the world which most closely resembles that of the host country.

The company has expanded its search beyond the borders of the host country, but has stopped short of seeking management personnel from its operations throughout the world. The theory behind this selection process is that nationals of the region in which operations actually take place are better able to deal with language and cultural problems than are managers from outside the region. The logic behind this hiring approach is probably sound, but it ignores the potential growth a manager goes through when forced to deal with different situations than those in which he or she is comfortable.

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