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MANG 201-Final

Management is the process of working with people and resources to design successful products.
achieve organizational goals.
Even though the department she manages sometimes takes longer to reach its goals than the president would like and is frequently over budget, when Caroline does grow her branch as the president wants, she would be described as
effective.
In the highly competitive business environment, how is the planning function more dynamically described?
Delivering strategic value
Which of the following defines the management function of controlling?
Monitoring performance and making needed changes
Indra Nooyi, CEO of PepsiCo, is an example of a(n)
top-level manager.
Which of the following is characteristic of frontline managers?
They are the link between management and nonmanagement personnel.
Krista sent all the families at a local elementary school a weekly newsletter that included all the activities that recently occurred, requests for help from the community, and a list of important upcoming dates. Krista is fulfilling what managerial role for the school?
Disseminator
Lower-level managers who possess ________ are effectively able to complete daily activities, and earn more credibility from their subordinates than comparable managers without them.
technical skills
Interpersonal and communication skills are sometimes known as
people skills.
The skills of understanding yourself, managing yourself, and dealing effectively with others are collectively known as
emotional intelligence.
Which of the following is NOT among the major waves of change challenging managers today?
Risk management
A primary reason that companies choose to operate globally is
increased opportunities for growth.
One’s personal relationships can aid career success, compensation, employment, team effectiveness, and successful entrepreneurship, so it is advantageous to develop
social capital.
Capitalizing on the expertise, skills, wisdom, and relationships of the people within an organization is known as
knowledge management.
Which of the following is a component of total quality?
Preventing defects before they occur
Keeping costs low enough to achieve profits while pricing products at levels that are attractive to consumers is called
cost competitiveness.
Around 4000 BC, the Egyptians:
used planning, organizing, leading, and controlling to build their great pyramids.
The _____ in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the way most managers had operated throughout history—by a trial-and-error basis.
industrial revolution
Economies of scale refers to:
reductions in the average cost of a unit of production as the total volume produced increases.
In the context of classical approaches to management, _____ emphasized internal operations because managers were concerned primarily with meeting the explosive growth in demand brought about by the industrial revolution.
systematic management
In the context of classical approaches to management, _____ did not address all the issues faced by 19th century managers, but it tried to raise managers’ awareness about the most pressing concerns of their job.
systematic management
In the context of classical approaches to management, _____ concluded that management decisions were unsystematic and that no research to determine the best means of production existed.
Frederick Taylor
In the context of scientific management, which of the following is a contribution of Henry L. Gantt?
He suggested that frontline supervisors should receive a bonus for each of their workers who completed their assigned daily tasks.
In the context of scientific management, which of the following was an area of interest for Lillian Gilbreth, an influential contributor?
How job satisfaction motivated employees
Which of the following is a criticism of Taylor’s theory of scientific management?
Job-related social and psychological factors were ignored by emphasizing only money as a worker incentive.
Which of the following is a criticism of the bureaucratic approach to management?
Once established, it is very difficult to dismantle such an organizational structure.
In his book The Functions of the Executive, _____ outlined the role of the senior executive: formulating the purpose of the organization, hiring key individuals, and maintaining organizational communications.
Chester Barnard
In the context of Henri Fayol’s 14 principles of management, _____ refers to making expectations clear and punishing violations.
discipline
During the first stage of the Hawthorne Studies known as the _____, various working conditions, particularly the lighting in the factory, were altered to determine the effects of those changes on productivity.
Illumination Experiments
The _____ refers to people’s reactions to being observed or studied resulting in superficial rather than meaningful changes in behavior.
Hawthorne Effect
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, _____ suggests that organizations are effective when their employees have the right tools, training, and knowledge to make products and services that are valued by customers.
sociotechnical systems theory
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, managers use the techniques of _____ as a supplement or tool in the decision process.
quantitative management
According to Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Theory Y managers:
assume employees want to work and can direct and control themselves.
In the context of systems theory, _____ are the products and services that organizations create.
outputs
In 2001 _____ authored an influential book titled Good to Great in which he and his research team analyzed 1,435 companies to understand why some companies reach high levels of sustained performance while other companies fail to reach greatness.
Jim Collins
_____ refers to the statistical characteristics of a group or population such as age, gender, and education level.
Demographics
A customer who purchases raw materials or wholesale products before selling them to final customers is known as a(n) _____ consumer.
intermediate
Which of the following is an intermediate consumer?
retailer
Which of the following is an attractive environment for firms?
Low customer bargaining power
Which of the following factors contributes to an attractive environment for firms?
Many barriers to entry
Which of the following factors makes an environment unattractive for firms?
High threat of entry
_____ refers to exploiting a distinctive competence or improving internal efficiency for competitive advantage.
Competitive aggression
_____ is independent action to improve relations with competitors.
Competitive pacification
_____ are used by two or more organizations working together to manage the external environment.
Cooperative strategies
_____ are agreements between the organization and another group to exchange goods, services, information, and patents.
Contracts
_____ refers to absorbing new elements into the organization’s leadership structure to avert threats to its stability or existence.
Cooptation
Which of the following is an independent strategy of an organization to change its current environment?
Competitive aggression
Which of the following is a way of adapting to the environment?
Buffering
Which of the following is a way of influencing the environment?
Independent action
_____ are the strongly held and taken-for-granted beliefs that guide behavior in the firm.
Unconscious assumptions
Which of the following organizational cultures are strongly characterized by entrepreneurship, creativity, adaptability, and dynamism?
Adhocracy
Which of the following organizational cultures are strongly characterized by cohesiveness, participation, and sense of family?
Group culture
Which of the following organizational cultures are strongly characterized by order, rules and regulations, uniformity, and efficiency?
Hierarchical culture
Which of the following organizational cultures are strongly characterized by goal achievement, environment exchange, and competitiveness?
Rational culture
Which of the following leadership styles is associated with a group culture?
Mentor, facilitator, parent figure
Managers benefit their organizations not only by growing profits, but also by behaving _____ when dealing with individuals and groups (known as stakeholders) that interact with their organizations.
ethically
Which of the following describes where ethical issues are found?
In all parts of life
In the context of universalism, kyosei and human dignity are the two basic ideals underpinning the _____ Principles for Business.
Caux
Which of the following describes the argument for the ethical system of egoism?
When everyone does what promotes the greatest good for oneself, then the well-being of society as a whole should increase.
In Kohlberg’s model of cognitive moral development, which category follows the conventional stage?
Principled
The ________ was passed into law by Congress in 2002 to establish strict accounting and reporting rules in order to make senior managers more accountable and to improve and maintain investor confidence.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
In an organization, the processes by which decisions are evaluated and made on the basis of right and wrong are called the:
ethical climate.
In order to fulfill his or her role of creating an environment that encourages ethical behavior, a manager needs to:
lead employees to behave ethically.
The “sunshine” ethical framework used by IBM asks:
if employees would approve seeing their actions on the front page of a newspaper.
What is the difference between integrity-based ethics programs and compliance-based ethics programs?
Integrity-based programs instill in people a personal responsibility for ethical behavior.
When making ethical decisions, it is important to start with moral _____, which means you realize that the issue has ethical implications.
awareness
What is the role of courage in carrying out moral judgments?
It is necessary to take actions consistent with your ethical decisions.
In the context of acting ethically in business, many people who indulge in _____ suffer consequences such as being ostracized, treated rudely, or given undesirable assignments.
whistleblowing
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the obligation:
toward society assumed by business.
Which area of responsibility, that corresponds to doing what global stakeholders desire, is at the top of the pyramid of global corporate social responsibility and performance?
philanthropic
Which of the following is one of the five higher goals of a transcendent education?
Empathy
When considering corporate social responsibility, all organizations need to:
make a wide variety of charitable contributions.
Which of the following is a fundamental source of risk in our society?
Ecologically unsustainable consumption of natural resources
In addition to creation of sustainable economic development, which of the following is a goal of ecocentric management?
Improvement of quality of life worldwide for all organizational stakeholders
In the context of sustainable development, _____ considers the extraction of raw materials, product packaging, transportation, and disposal.
life cycle analysis
Which of the following describes where ethical issues are found?
In all parts of life
Which of the following is true of the planning process?
Planning is flexible enough to allow unique circumstances and changing conditions.
To be effective, goals need to meet five specific characteristics which may be remembered with the acronym:
SMART.
A(n) _____ plan is a type of plan that is put into action when a company’s initial plans have not worked well or events in the external environment require a sudden change.
contingency
Piece-Wise Parts, a manufacturing company, developed a strategic plan for 2008 that assumed improved growth in its industry. Additionally, it generated several _____ for different economic settings. When recession started, Piece-Wise Parts quickly implemented the plan based on those conditions. As a consequence, it survived more easily than other firms in the industry.
scenarios
A _____ is a pattern of actions and resource allocations designed to achieve the organization’s goals.
strategy
Which of the following is one of the six components of the strategic management process?
Strategy implementation
In the context of the strategic management process, the _____ is a clear and concise expression of an organization’s basic purpose and the scope of its operations.
mission
_____ are inputs to production that can be accumulated over time to enhance the performance of a firm.
Resources
In the context of resources, company reputation, culture, technical knowledge, and patents are examples of _____ assets.
intangible
_____ is the process of assessing how well one company’s basic functions and skills compare with those of another company or set of companies.
Benchmarking
Once a _____ is completed, managers can take advantage of available opportunities by capitalizing on the organization’s strengths, neutralizing its weaknesses, and countering potential threats.
SWOT analysis
_____ refers to the acquisition or development of new businesses that produce parts or components of the organization’s product.
Vertical integration
Which of the following is one of the four categories of business in the BCG matrix?
Cash cows
A competitive advantage typically results from a low-cost business strategy or a(n) _____ business strategy.
differentiation
In the context of a decision-making process, _____ is choosing the first option that is minimally acceptable or adequate.
satisficing
In the context of the influence of psychological biases in decision making, _____ refers to a belief that one can influence events even when one has no control over what will happen.
illusion of control
_____ refers to a bias weighting short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits.
Discounting the future
Which of the following is a potential advantage of using a group to make a decision?
Participation in problem solving increases commitment to decisions.
How can constructive conflict improve group decision making?
It increases the knowledge and diverse viewpoints that individuals bring to the group.
In the context of decision making, what is the role of a devil’s advocate in constructive conflict?
To criticize ideas and point out problems
A(n) _____ organization depends heavily on an informal structure of employee networks.
organic
In a(n) _____ organization, managers encourage employees to work more as teammates than as subordinates who take orders from the boss.
organic
_____ found that organizations in a complex, dynamic environment developed a high degree of differentiation to cope with the challenges.
Lawrence and Lorsch
Which of the following is a characteristic of a mechanistic organization?
Obedience to authority as an expression of commitment
In which of the following conditions should the optimal span of control be wide?
Subordinates prefer autonomy to close supervisory control.
In the context of the vertical structure of a firm, which of the following is true of delegation?
It entails getting work done through others.
In the context of the horizontal structure of a firm, which of the following is true of line departments?
They make things, sell things, or provide customer service.
In the context of the horizontal structure of a firm, research, legal, accounting, and human resources departments are examples of _____ departments.
staff
Which of the following is a disadvantage of the traditional functional approach to departmentalization?
Communication between functions may fall off due to conflicts.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of the product approach to departmentalization?
The duplication of effort is expensive.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of a matrix organization?
Too much democracy can lead to not enough action.
Which of the following is true of a network organization?
Managers within the organization interact closely with members outside it.
When organizations coordinate activities by establishing routines that remain in place over time, we say that work has been _____.
standardized
In the context of organizational integration, _____ allows interdependent units to modify and adapt their actions as long as they meet the deadlines and targets required for working with others.
coordination by plan
Which of the following is one of the strategies that managers can use to cope with high uncertainty and heavy information demands in today’s environments?
Reduce the need for information.
In a_____, individual organizations share administrative authority, form social links, and accept joint ownership.
strategic alliance
After downsizing, employees who keep their jobs struggle with heavier workloads and become risk-averse, self-absorbed, and narrow-minded. They are said to display a phenomena known as _____.
survivor’s syndrome
Alonzo is an entrepreneur who specializes in processing techniques for high-end photography enthusiasts. In his organization, there are few rules and formal procedures, and the staff tends to make their own decisions. Alonzo’s operation is best described as a:
small batch organization.
In the organizational approach of _______, the emphasis is on quality, speed, and flexibility more than on cost, efficiency, and hierarchy.
lean manufacturing
A system that calls for subassemblies and components to be manufactured in very small lots and delivered to the next stage of the production process as they are needed is known as:
just-in-time.
Which of the following departments of an organization focuses on activities that attract, develop, and motivate people at work?
Human resources
_____ refers to the process when an organization implements specific human resources activities, such as recruitment, training, and pay systems.
Programming
Which of the following is true of labor supply forecasts?
Retraining downsized workers is an approach to increasing the labor pool.
Which of the following steps is most likely to be taken by an organization when faced with a labor deficit?
They can outsource work to contractors.
Which of the following is true of job analysis?
t helps increase value added by employees to the organization.
Which of the following is a function of a job analysis?
To describe the skills and knowledge needed
Which of the following is an advantage of external recruiting?
It inspires innovation.
Many companies that rely heavily on internal recruiting use a(n) _____ system to advertise open positions, and this includes a list of duties and the minimum skills and experience required.
job posting
Which of the following is an advantage of using word-of-mouth recommendations to fill job positions?
Employees tend to know who will be a good fit with the organization.
Which of the following is true of applications and resumes?
They provide basic information that help prospective employers choose candidates.
Which of the following involves Social Security verification, a criminal records check, and past employment and education verification?
Background check
In the context of selection, _____ tests measure a range of intellectual abilities, including verbal comprehension (vocabulary, reading) and numerical aptitude (mathematical calculations).
cognitive ability
. In the context of selection methods, _____ refers to the consistency of test scores over time and across alternative measurements.
reliability
Considering the current understanding of employment-at-will, under which condition is it legal to terminate someone?
If an employee performs inadequately at work
A seemingly neutral employment practice that has a disproportionately negative effect on a group protected by the Civil Rights Act is known as:
adverse impact.
_______ involves teaching managers and professional employees broader skills needed for their present and future jobs.
Development
_____ usually refers to teaching lower-level employees how to perform their present jobs.
Training
In the context of performance appraisal, _____ has been criticized for resulting in unrealistic expectations, too much rigidity, and too much focus on short-term achievement in appraisals.
management by objectives
In _____ appraisal, feedback is obtained from subordinates, peers, and superiors—every level involved with the employee.
360-degree
155. In _____, employees are given credits, which they “spend” by selecting medical and dental insurance, dependent care, life insurance, and so on.
flexible benefit programs
The primary intent of affirmative action is to:
correct historical discriminations against minorities.
Companies with a reputation for providing opportunities for diverse employees are most likely to:
enhance organizational flexibility.
When employees believe that their differences are not merely tolerated but valued, they are likely to:
become more committed.
Which of the following is a defining characteristic of monolithic organizations?
Homogeneity
Which of the following is true of multicultural organizations?
They fully integrate minority group members both formally and informally.
Which of the following is one of the goals of diversity training?
Developing the skills needed to manage a diversified workforce effectively.
The Act that prohibits U.S. employees from bribing foreign officials is known as:
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977.
Which of the following is true of the functions of a leader?
People want leaders to help them achieve their goals.
According to Kouzes and Posner, which of the following is the action of the best leaders?
They motivate people to care about an important mission.
The best visions for an organization are both ideal and _____.
unique
_____ leadership is behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.
Supervisory
Effective followers are capable of ______, yet at the same time are actively committed to organizational goals.
independent thinking
In the context of leadership, power is defined as the ability to _____ other people.
influence
Isabella has been working hard to achieve her performance goals. She received a positive performance review and a big pay raise from her manager. This illustrates her manager’s ______ power.
Reward
Natalie, a manager, has several years of engineering experience and holds many professional licenses. New engineers in the firm frequently look to her for instruction or advice. Natalie can be considered to have ______ power.
expert
Which of the following is an assumption of the trait approach to studying leadership?
Leaders are born, not made.
Which of the following is a traditional approach to studying leadership?
The behavioral approach
According to the trait approach to studying leadership, _____ is consistently related to leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness.
extraversion
According to the behavioral approach to studying leadership, the _____ behavior includes a focus on work speed, quality and accuracy, quantity of output, and following the rules.
task performance
In exhibiting _____ behaviors, leaders take action to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the group’s social stability.
group maintenance
_____ refers to a form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group.
Autocratic leadership
The situational approach to leadership that emphasizes how leaders go about making decisions is called the:
Vroom model.
Which of the following is a key situational factor of the path-goal theory?
Personal characteristics of followers
Substitutes for leadership refer to:
factors in the workplace that can provide the same influence on people as leaders otherwise would have.
Which of the following is a characteristic of transactional leadership?
Unaffected by strong emotion or prejudice
Which of the following is a characteristic of transformational leadership?
Having positive self-regard
_____ leadership is about creating better interpersonal processes for finding solutions.
Lateral
_______ refers to forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts.
Motivation
Which of the following is an essential characteristic for a goal to be motivating?
It should be challenging.
According to the guidelines of goal-setting theory, which of the following goals is most likely to stimulate performance?
Increase profit levels by 20% over the previous year.
The two consequences of behavior that reduce the motivation to repeat the behaviors that lead to undesired results are punishment and:
extinction.
Constructive ways to handle mistakes include:
acknowledging a good faith attempt.
On receiving feedback, one should ideally:
avoid emotions of hurt.
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs would one seek to satisfy first?
Physiological
One of the needs postulated by McClelland is the need for _____, which is a strong desire to be liked by other people.
affiliation
Motivation for employees can come from an interesting project, a completed sale, or the discovery of a perfect solution, all of which are examples of:
intrinsic rewards.
In the context of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, motivators:
describe the job itself.
Empowerment is best defined as:
the process of sharing power with employees that enhances their confidence in their ability to perform their job.
_____ refers to a set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers and what their employers owe.
Psychological contract
Which of the following is an example of a benefit for members of a team?
Acquiring new skill
A _____ is formed of people (usually a small number) with complementary skills who trust one another and are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and a common approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
team
A safety team, comprising members of several departments, was formed to assess the workplace implications of a new federal regulation. This is an example of a _____ team.
parallel
The role of a management team is to:
coordinate and provide direction to subunits.
Teams which control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks including acquisitions, operations, quality control, maintenance, and shipping are known as a(n):
autonomous work group.
Which stage of project life cycle is reached when group members agree on their shared goals and develop principles and closer relationships?
Norming
Which of the following is a reason for team failure?
Lack of training and support systems
The three criteria that define an effective team are:
productive output, satisfaction among members, and committed members.
Which of the following provides the most honest, and thus the most crucial and useful, feedback about the performance of a team?
External customers
When individuals are more motivated to work hard when others are present, are concerned with what others think of them, and want to maintain a positive self-image, the phenomenon is known as:
social facilitation effect.
Which of the following is a function of a task specialist?
to move the team toward accomplishment of objectives
What are people who boost morale, give support, provide humor, or soothe hurt feelings within a team known as?
Team maintenance specialists
Which of the following is a characteristic of superior team leaders?
Scouting
________is the degree to which a team is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another.
Cohesiveness
Which of the following factors is present when a team gives its highest performance?
High cohesiveness and high performance norms
A team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders; diagnose the needs of customers, clients, and higher-ups; and experiment with solutions before taking action is known as
probing.
Which of the following relationships emerges as a group receives tasks from one unit, processes it, and sends it to the next unit in the process?
Work flow relationships
Adam was disappointed when his team did not discuss his proposal before voting. He reacted by missing meetings but did not say anything further about the matter. This type of reaction to conflict is known as:
avoidance.
_____ refer to higher-level organizational goals taking priority over specific individual or group goals can be used to encourage collaboration.
Superordinate goals
A(n) _____ refers to a third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict.
mediator
The communication process often is hampered by _____, or interference in the system, that blocks perfect understanding.
noise
Ringing telephones, thoughts about other things, and fatigue and stress may block perfect understanding between parties. These are examples of _____ in the communication process.
noise
Which of the following is an advantage of one-way communication over two-way communication?
Communication is faster and easier.
When the words on the screen are too small to be read from the back of the room during a presentation, an error in the ______ stage of the communication process has occurred.
transmission
The human tendency to ______ underlies much of the ineffective communication and demonstrates the need for more effective managerial communication practices.
filter
Which of the following is a disadvantage of oral communication?
There is no permanent record of the message.
Which of the following is an advantage of electronic communication within organizations compared to other methods?
There is increased speed and efficiency for routine messages.
Loss of “human moments”, burnout caused by long hours close to technical tools of work, and lack of guidance for inexperienced employees are among the disadvantages of:
virtual offices.
_____ communication is the richest medium because it offers a variety of cues in addition to words.
face-to-face
_____ is actually a form of shorthand and can make communication more effective when both the sender and the receiver know the buzzwords.
Jargon
______ cues often make a greater impact than other signals, hence managers must remember that their actions often speak louder than their words.
Nonverbal
A basic technique called _____ will help a manager listen effectively.
reflection
When both parties actively engage in _____, they get into each other’s frame of reference rather than listening and responding from their own.
reflection
_____ poses serious problems in organizations when messages are communicated downward through many organizational levels and much information is lost.
Filtering
When people have performance problems or exhibit behaviors that need to be changed, _____ is often the best way to help them change and succeed.
coaching
The practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management’s eyes only is known as _____.
open-book management
The _____ is the social network of informal communications.
grapevine
_____ communications are official, organization-sanctioned episodes of information transmission.
Formal
The _____can be destructive when irrelevant or erroneous gossip and rumors proliferate and harm operations.
grapevine
A boundaryless organization implies:
information available as needed.
_____ provides managers with continuous feedback so that when plans are not carried out properly, managers can take steps to correct the problem.
Control
_____ involves the use of pricing mechanisms to regulate activities in organizations as though they were economic transactions.
Market control
____ does not assume that the interests of the organization and individuals naturally diverge.
Clan control
_____ are designed to measure progress toward set performance goals, and if necessary, to apply corrective measures to ensure performance meets objectives.
Bureaucratic control systems
_____ are targets that establish desired performance levels, motivate performance, and serve as benchmarks against which to assess actual performance.
Standards
In computer-controlled production technology, the strategy of _____ is more efficient because deviations are controlled closer to their source.
operator control
Policies restricting workplace romance, tattoos, and body art, and public disclosure of corporate information are examples of ______ control.
feedforward
_____ control focuses on the use of information about results to correct deviations from the acceptable standard after they arise.
Feedback
Which of the following stage of budgetary control involves dealing with finding out what is being accomplished and comparing the results with expectancies.
Performing budgetary operations
The _____ budget is used for the cost of fixed assets like plants and equipment.
capital
Required information for preparing a _____ budget includes types and capacities of machines and availability of materials.
production
_____ starts with the assumption that organizations are collections of people performing many different but related activities to satisfy customer needs.
Activity-based costing
The _____ shows the financial picture of a company at a given time.
balance sheet
The _____ is an itemized financial statement of the income and expenses of a company’s operations.
profit and loss statement
_____ refers to limiting measures to functional or departmental responsibilities rather than the organization’s overall objectives
Provincialism
_____ motivate(s) people and provides information that enables them to correct their own deviations from performance standards.
Feedback
A _____ refers to a control system combining four sets of performance measures: financial, customer, business process, and learning and growth.
balanced scorecard
_____ is a process wherein managers controlled work by dividing and simplifying tasks.
Scientific management
A _____ is the charge by one unit in the organization for a good or service that it supplies to another unit of the same organization.
transfer price
Which of the following actions is recommended for managing in an empowered world?
Incentive systems should reinforce teamwork.

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