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MGMT 2

Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called:
innovation streams
The __________ approach to managing innovation assumes that innovation is a predictable process made up of a series of steps and that compressing the time it takes to complete those steps can speed up innovation.
Compression
The first stage of organizational decline is:
Blinded
Which of the following is one of the three steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin?
unfreezing
According to John Kotter’s analysis of the errors managers make when leading change, the first and potentially most serious of these errors is:
not establishing a great enough sense of urgency
Organizational ____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations.
innovation
Creativity was needed to improve efficiency without raising costs at one automobile maker. Over the last few years, the company has successfully implemented a creative engineering program that allows its plants to produce more than one type of car from the same assembly line. This successful change to a flexible manufacturing system is an example of ____.
organizational innovation
The development of the DVD player was a source of ____ to companies in the movie industry just as VHS tapes had once been.
technological discontinuity
A technology ____ begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology.
cycle
Nearly all technology cycles follow the typical ____ pattern of innovation.
S-curve
In the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e., money, research and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance ____,
at both the beginning and end of the cycle
When significant improvements in performance can ONLY be gained through radical new designs or new performance-enhancing materials, it is likely that a company is ____ in the S-curve pattern of innovation.
at the end of the innovation cycle
Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called ____.
innovation streams
A technology cycle occurs whenever there are major advances or changes in the ____ in a field or discipline.
knowledge, tools, and techniques
is the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition.
Discontinuous change
The purchase of new technologies to replace older ones is an example of ___.
technological substitution
Discontinuous change in an innovation stream is characterized by ____.
technological substitution
In order from beginning to end, the phases of a technology cycle within an innovation stream consist of ____.
technological discontinuity, discontinuous change, dominant design, and incremental change
____ are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged.
Creative work environments
Organizational development ____.
is a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions
Which of the following statements describes an advantage of the results-driven change approach to managing change?
All of these were cited as advantages of the results-driven change approach.
A(n) ____ is the individual who is formally in charge of guiding a change effort
change agent
Which of the following methods for managing resistance to change should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions?
coercion
According to social psychologist Kurt Lewin, ____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while ____ support the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization.
change forces; resistance forces
It is appropriate to use a(n) ____ approach to manage innovation in more certain environments during periods of incremental change, in which the goals are lower costs and incremental improvements in the performance and function of the existing technological design
compression
When incremental improvements are made to a dominant technological design such that the improved version of the technology is fully backward compatible with the older version, ____ is said to have occurred.
generational change
The ____ approach to managing innovation assumes that innovation is a predictable process made up of a series of steps and that compressing the time it takes to complete those steps can speed up innovation.
compression
Which of the following is a component of a creative work environment that encourages creativity
all of these
The two general kinds of trade barriers are:
tariff barriers and nontariff barriers
The trade agreement that represented the most significant change to the regulations governing global trade during the 1990s was the:
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Which of the following represents the correct sequence for the phase model of globalization?
exporting; cooperative contracts; strategic alliances; wholly owned affiliates
Two factors help determine the growth potential of foreign markets. They are foreign competition and
purchasing power
Hofstede’s research has shown there are
five consistent dimensions of cultural differences across countries
An expatriate is someone who:
lives and works outside of his or her own country
The evidence clearly shows that __________ is the most important factor in determining the success or failure of an international assignment.
how well an expatriate’s spouse and family adjust to the foreign culture
Global business is defined as____.
the buying and selling of goods and services to people from different countries
____ is a method of investment in which a company builds a new business or buys an existing business in a foreign country.
Direct foreign investment
In 2000, the United States imposed a tax on all steel imports in an effort to protect about 5,000 jobs. This tax is an example of a(n) ____.
tariff
____ are long-term, low-interest loans, cash grants, and tax deductions used to develop and protect companies or special industries
Subsidies
The acronym GATT stands for the ____.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
One of the major questions that a company must typically answer about its future, once it has decided to go global is ____.
To what extent should the company standardize or adapt business procedures?
One of the major questions that a company must typically answer about its future, once it has decided to go global is ____.
To what extent should the company standardize or adapt business procedures?
Historically, most companies have used the ____ to successfully enter foreign markets.
phase model of globalization
Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics is a medium-sized U.S. company that sells 1.5 million tubes of its lipstick annually in Japan. It has no physical presence within the country beyond the fact its products are sold there. Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics uses ____ to reach the Japanese market.
exporting
____ occurs when a company sells domestically produced products to customers in foreign countries.
Exporting
A(n) ____ is an agreement in which a foreign business owner pays a company a fee for the right to conduct that business in his or her country.
cooperative contract
____ are both examples of cooperative contracts
Franchising and licensing
In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, the people who are described as happy-go-lucky and are people who are comfortable with an unstructured life and deal well with sudden changes. In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, these people have a ____.
low degree of uncertainty avoidance
Starbucks is expanding its global operations into South America in spite of the real probability of civil wars and terrorist activities in many of the continent’s nations. As Starbucks expands into South America, it must deal with ____.
political uncertainty
The evidence clearly shows that ____ is the most important factor in determining the success or failure of an international assignment.
how well an expatriate’s spouse and family adjust to the foreign culture
The term ____ is used by Hofstede to describe the degree to which people in a country are uncomfortable with unstructured, ambiguous, unpredictable situations
uncertainty avoidance
According to Hofstede, when people in a culture are oriented to the present and seek immediate gratification, that culture is described as ____.
having a short-term orientation
The ____ strategy of minimizing or adapting to the political risk inherent to global business makes use of joint ventures and collaborative contracts.
cooperation
____ is the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of people from a particular country.
National culture
What are the two types of political risk that affect companies conducting global business
political uncertainty and policy uncertainty
A country or region that has an attractive business climate for companies that want to go global has ____.
an effective but cost-efficient place to build an office or manufacturing site
Which of the following factors helps a company determine the growth potential of a foreign market?
purchasing power
Which of the following factors should be considered when choosing an office/manufacturing location in the Brazilian market for a U.S. company that operates cinemas and wants to open a chain of movie theatres there?
all of these
Organizational authority is traditionally characterized by
chain of command
A(n) __________ function is an activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company’s products.
line
__________ means increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the power to make decisions about their own work.
Job enrichment
A(n) __________ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities, precisely defined, unchanging roles, and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.
mechanistic
__________ is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.
Reengineering
Except for the core business activities that they can perform better, faster, and cheaper than others, __________ outsource all remaining business activities to outside companies, suppliers, specialists, or consultants.
modular organizations
The organizational process ____.
is the collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value
While ____ emphasizes jobs and their authority relationships, ____ emphasizes the activities through which work gets done in the organization.
organizational structure; organizational process
____ departmentalization is defined as organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise.
functional
____ is a general term that refers to subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units that are responsible for completing particular tasks.
Departmentalization
Which of the following statements about functional departmentalization is true?
Functional departmentalization allows work to be done by highly qualified specialists.
Hallmark has four departments. These departments are (1) Flowers and Gifts, (2) Cards and E-cards, (3) Hallmark Collectibles, and (4) Photo Albums and Scrapbooks. Hallmark uses ____ departmentalization.
Product
With divisions that focus on business clients and consumer clients, companies like Sprint, American Express, and others are examples of ____ departmentalization.
customer
Procter & Gamble has divisions for personal and beauty, house and home, health and wellness, baby and family, and pet nutrition and care. These divisions indicate that the company uses ____ departmentalization.
product
With ____ departmentalization, most employees report to two bosses.
matrix
In terms of the chain of command, ____ authority is the right to command immediate subordinates, while ____ authority is the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates.
line, staff
The chain of command ____.
is described by none of these
____ involves assigning direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.
Delegation of authority
When managers delegate work, three transfers occur. The three transfers are responsibility, authority, and ____.
accountability
____ is the process of solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes.
Standardization
Decentralization ____.
leads to faster decision making and more satisfied customers and employees
Job specialization can result in ____.
employee boredom
____ determines the number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in their jobs.
Job design
An organization that has increased the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular job has engaged in ____.
job enlargement
The central concern of the job characteristics model (JCM) is ____.
internal motivation
____ is the degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs.
Autonomy
____ is the degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization.
Task significance
A(n) ____ organization is one that is characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities; loosely defined, frequently changing roles; and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge.
organic
A(n) ____ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles; and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.
mechanistic
The three types of task interdependence are
reciprocal, pooled, and sequential
Team rewards that depend on __________ are the key to rewarding team behaviors and efforts.
team performance rather than individual performance
Which of the following types of teams have the authority to change their composition as well as all of their tasks and work methods?
self-designing teams
Which of the following size teams usually provides the best performance?
6 to 9
According to the text, a(n) ____ is a small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes.
work team
How are organizations using teams to help increase customer satisfaction?
by creating problem-solving teams to study ways to improve customer satisfaction and make recommendations for improvements
Which of the following is a reason teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work?
All of these are reasons why teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work.
____ occurs when workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
Social loafing
Which of the following statements describe an advantage teams have over individuals in the decision-making process?
All of these describe advantages teams have over individuals in the decision-making process.
Teams are typically required when ____.
tasks require multiple perspectives
In the autonomy continuum (which shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy), the correct sequence, from low team autonomy to high team autonomy, is ____.
traditional work groups, employee involvement teams, semi-autonomous work groups, self-managing teams, and self-designing teams
The ____ is purposefully composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization.
cross-functional team
A(n) ____ is defined as a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task.
virtual team
The ____ is created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks within a limited time.
project team
____ are informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior.
Norms
____ is the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain with it.
Cohesiveness
Team norms in an organization can create ____.
all of these
Which of the following statements regarding cohesiveness is true?
Cohesive groups have lower turnover
____ undermines team effectiveness by preventing teams from engaging in the kinds of activities that are critical to team effectiveness.
Affective conflict
Affective conflict ____.
typically decreases team cohesiveness
Minority domination tends to be a particular problem in ____.
groups of ten or larger
Which of the following statements about team development is true?
The growth stages are forming, norming, and performing.
Which of the following is one of the stages that teams pass through as they develop and grow, rather than decline?
performing
Group cohesion tends to be relatively strong at the ____ stage of team development.
norming
A team has finally matured into a fully-functioning team at the ____ stage of development.
performing
With ____, teams no longer have to go through the frustratingly slow process of multilevel reviews and signoffs to get management approval before making changes.
bureaucratic immunity
____ is the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices if it helps teams meet their stretch goals.
Structural accommodation
____ describes the average level of ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team.
Team level
Which of the following statements about team training is true?
Cross-training is less appropriate for teams of highly skilled workers.
Which of the following is a method used for compensating employees for team participation and accomplishments?
gainsharing
An organization that rewards its team members through gainsharing is ____.
sharing the financial value of performance gains
To which of the following aspects of the human resource management process does federal employment law apply?
all of these
A __________ is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.
job analysis
The __________ interview uses only standardized, job-related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidate
structured
A __________ is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers and co-workers, and the employees themselves.
360-degree feedback
An ESOP is an:
employee stock ownership plan
____ is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people for the company.
Human resource management
The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of ____.
bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)
____ is intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposefully not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs.
Disparate treatment
When a CEO opened the nationwide sales force meeting with a crude sexually explicit joke it was an example of ____.
sexual harassment
The ____ is a rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact. A violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than a specified level of the selection rate for a nonprotected group.
80 percent rule
From a legal perspective, there are two kinds of sexual harassment. They are ____.
quid pro quo and hostile work environment
Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?
Sexual harassment can occur between people of the same sex.
Former female employees of a national real estate brokerage firm claimed that they were subjected to lewd remarks, unwanted groping, and sexual propositions by male co-workers. According to their attorney, “The firm created a frat-house culture and then failed to do anything about it.” Their suit claims the women were victims of ____.
a hostile work environment
To ensure that sexual harassment laws are followed and not violated, companies should ____.
do all of these
Two of the most important results of a job analysis are ____.
job descriptions and job specifications
____ help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related.
Job specifications, job analyses, and job descriptions
Which of the following types of information would typically be collected as part of a job analysis?
all of these
Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.
conduct a job analysis
In order to be considered ____, recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisals, and employee separations must be valid and be directly related to the important aspects of the job and identified by a careful job analysis.
job-related
____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job.
Selection
Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true?
Validation refers to the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance.
Which of the following questions is deemed acceptable (i.e., “legal”) for employers to ask applicants during the selection process?
Have you ever been convicted of a crime?
Which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs?
cognitive ability tests
____ means providing opportunities for employees to develop the job-specific skills, experience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their performance.
Training
Which of the following training methods is most appropriate for imparting information or knowledge to trainees?
lectures and planned readings
Which of the following is one of the ways in which training can be evaluated?
all of these
Which of the following statements about performance appraisal is true?
Most employees and managers intensely dislike the performance appraisal process.
Which of the following is an example of an objective performance measure?
input/output measures
To improve traditional performance appraisal feedback sessions, it is recommended that managers ____.
base performance appraisal feedback sessions on self-appraisals
The term ____ refers to both the financial and nonfinancial rewards organizations give employees in exchange for their work.
compensation

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