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Mgmt 320 ch2

evidence-based management
translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.
there are few really new ideas, doing well usually dominates
evidence-based management is based on 3 truths: 1) ___, 2) true is better than new, 3)
historical and contemporary
2 overarching perspectives about management:
historical perspective
The __ includes three viewpoints: classical, behavioral, and quantitative.
contemporary perspective
__ includes 3 viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality-management.
classical viewpoint
The ___ emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently, had 2 branches -scientific and administrative. assumes that ppl are rational.
scientific management
emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. (Taylor and Gilbreth).
soldiering
“underachieving” or “loafing” or what Taylor called it ___, deliberately working at less than full capacity.
Frederick Taylor
“the father of scientific management”
evaluate, give workers the training and incentives
Taylor believed that managers could eliminate soldiering by applying 4 principles of science: __, carefully select, __, and use scientific principles to plan.
motion studies
taylor based his system on ___ and suggested employers institute a differential rate system- more efferent workers earned higher wages.
administrative management
is concerned w/ managing the totals organization (Fayol and Weber).
a well-defined hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, careers based on merit
Weber wrote an organization should have 5 positive bureaucratic features: 1) __, 2) ___, a clear division of labor, impersonality, w/out reference or connection to a particular person, and 5)___.
mechanistic
a flaw in the classical viewpoint is that it is ___. tends to view humans as a cog w/in a machine.
behavioral viewpoint
__ emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement. 3 phases: early behaviorism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science.
hawthrone studies
an investigation into whether workplace lighting level affected worker productivity. (Mayo and Hawthrone)
Hawthorne effect
employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare, and if supervisors paid special attention to them.
human relations movement
proposed that better human relations could increase workers productivity (Maslow and McGregor).
hierarchy of human needs
In 1943 Maslow proposed his famous___: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.
Douglas McGregor
Theory X (pessimistic, neg view of workers) vs Theory Y (an optimistic, positive view of workers).
Behavioral science
relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for mangers. Includes psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics.
quantitative management
Operations research (OR) techniques have evolved into ___ -the application to management of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations. 2 branches: management science and operations management. Ex) how to deploy troops and equipment most effectively
management science
focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and designs making. sometimes called operation research. Ex) used to decide how to assign utility repair crews during blackouts or how many package sorter needed at certain times.
operations management
focuses on managing the production and delivery go an organization’s products or services more effectively. Concerned with work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design, and optimum inventory levels.
contemporary perspective
___ consist of 3 viewpoints: systems, contingency, quality-management.
system
a __ is a set of interrelated parts the tolerate together to achieve a common purpose.
systems viewpoint
regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts. By adopting this point of view, you can look at your organization as both: (1) a collection of subsystems- parts making up the whole system and (2) a part of the larger environment. Ex) a college
inputs, feedback
4 parts of a system are defined as: __, transformation processes, outputs, and __.
inputs
ppl, money, info, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services. Whatever goes into the system is an __.
transformation processes
the organization’s capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs.
outputs
the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produce ny the organization.
feedback
info about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs.
open system
an __ continually interacts with its environment.
closed system
The classical management viewpoint often considered an organization as a ___- has little interaction w/ its environment; that is it receives very little feedback from the outside.
complexity theory
the systems viewpoint has led to the development of ___- the study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems.
contingency viewpoint
emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and the environmental situation.
quality-management viewpoint
includes quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management.
quality
the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs.
quality control
the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production (Shewart).
quality assurance
focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”. Has been less successful bc often employees have no control over the design of the work process.
Total quality management (TQM)
a comprehensive approach led by top management and supported throughout the org dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.
make continuous improvement a priority, listen to and learn from customers and employees
4 components of TQM are as follows: __, get every employee involved, ___, and use accurate standards to ID and eliminate problems.
learning organization
an org that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge w/in itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.
creating and acquiring knowledge
3 parts of The Learning Organization: ___, transferring knowledge, and modifying behavior
build a commitment to learning, work to generalized ideas w/ impact.
To create a learning organization, managers must perform 3 key fx/roles: __, work to generate ideas w/ impact, and ___.

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