translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.
there are few really new ideas, doing well usually dominates
evidence-based management is based on 3 truths: 1) ___, 2) true is better than new, 3)
historical and contemporary
2 overarching perspectives about management:
The __ includes three viewpoints: classical, behavioral, and quantitative.
__ includes 3 viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality-management.
The ___ emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently, had 2 branches -scientific and administrative. assumes that ppl are rational.
emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. (Taylor and Gilbreth).
“underachieving” or “loafing” or what Taylor called it ___, deliberately working at less than full capacity.
“the father of scientific management”
evaluate, give workers the training and incentives
Taylor believed that managers could eliminate soldiering by applying 4 principles of science: __, carefully select, __, and use scientific principles to plan.
taylor based his system on ___ and suggested employers institute a differential rate system- more efferent workers earned higher wages.
is concerned w/ managing the totals organization (Fayol and Weber).
a well-defined hierarchy of authority, formal rules and procedures, careers based on merit
Weber wrote an organization should have 5 positive bureaucratic features: 1) __, 2) ___, a clear division of labor, impersonality, w/out reference or connection to a particular person, and 5)___.
a flaw in the classical viewpoint is that it is ___. tends to view humans as a cog w/in a machine.
__ emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement. 3 phases: early behaviorism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science.
an investigation into whether workplace lighting level affected worker productivity. (Mayo and Hawthrone)
employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare, and if supervisors paid special attention to them.
human relations movement
proposed that better human relations could increase workers productivity (Maslow and McGregor).
hierarchy of human needs
In 1943 Maslow proposed his famous___: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.
Theory X (pessimistic, neg view of workers) vs Theory Y (an optimistic, positive view of workers).
relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for mangers. Includes psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics.
Operations research (OR) techniques have evolved into ___ -the application to management of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations. 2 branches: management science and operations management. Ex) how to deploy troops and equipment most effectively
focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and designs making. sometimes called operation research. Ex) used to decide how to assign utility repair crews during blackouts or how many package sorter needed at certain times.
focuses on managing the production and delivery go an organization’s products or services more effectively. Concerned with work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design, and optimum inventory levels.
___ consist of 3 viewpoints: systems, contingency, quality-management.
a __ is a set of interrelated parts the tolerate together to achieve a common purpose.
regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts. By adopting this point of view, you can look at your organization as both: (1) a collection of subsystems- parts making up the whole system and (2) a part of the larger environment. Ex) a college
4 parts of a system are defined as: __, transformation processes, outputs, and __.
ppl, money, info, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services. Whatever goes into the system is an __.
the organization’s capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs.
the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produce ny the organization.
info about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs.
an __ continually interacts with its environment.
The classical management viewpoint often considered an organization as a ___- has little interaction w/ its environment; that is it receives very little feedback from the outside.
the systems viewpoint has led to the development of ___- the study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems.
emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and the environmental situation.
includes quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management.
the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs.
the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production (Shewart).
focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”. Has been less successful bc often employees have no control over the design of the work process.
Total quality management (TQM)
a comprehensive approach led by top management and supported throughout the org dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.
make continuous improvement a priority, listen to and learn from customers and employees
4 components of TQM are as follows: __, get every employee involved, ___, and use accurate standards to ID and eliminate problems.
an org that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge w/in itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.
creating and acquiring knowledge
3 parts of The Learning Organization: ___, transferring knowledge, and modifying behavior
build a commitment to learning, work to generalized ideas w/ impact.
To create a learning organization, managers must perform 3 key fx/roles: __, work to generate ideas w/ impact, and ___.
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