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MGMT 3370 ch.2 questions

In 1776, _____ discussed control and the principle of specialization with regard to manufacturing workers.
Adam Smith
_____ refer(s) to reductions in the average cost of a unit of production as the total volume produces increases.
Economies of scale
_____, one of the first university programs to offer management and business education, was founded in the late 19th century.
The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania
_____ is a classical management approach that attempted to build into operations the specific procedures and processes that would ensure coordination of effort to achieve established goals and plans.
Systematic management
_____ introduced the scientific management approach that advocated the application of scientific methods to analyze work and to determine how to complete production tasks efficiently.
Frederick Taylor
In the context of scientific management, which of the following is true of Frederick Taylor’s contributions?
Taylor advocated the use of the differential piecerate system
In the context of scientific management, critics claimed that:
it did not help managers deal with broader external issues such as government regulations
In the context of classical approaches to management, _____ believed bureaucratic structures can eliminate the variability that results when managers in the same organization have different skills, experiences, and goals.
Max Weber
Which of the following is a drawback of the bureaucratic approach to management?
Some people did not perform their best with excessive rules and regulations
In the context of Henri Fayol’s 14 principles of management, _____ refers to promoting a unity of interests between employees and management.
esprit de corps
In the context of administrative management, _____ wrote the book Dynamic Administration, which emphasized the continually changing situations that managers face.
Mary Parker Follett
Which of the following is one of Henri Fayol’s 14 principles of management
Scalar chain
Which of the following is one of the five functions of management as identified by Henri Fayol?
commanding
Who contributed two key principles—the notion that managers desire flexibility and the differences between motivating groups and individuals—to administrative management?
Mary Parker Follett
In the context of classical approaches to management, the _____ approach aimed at understanding how psychological and social processes interact with the work situation to influence performance.
human relations
The _____ were a series of experiments conducted from 1924 to 1932 to investigate the influence of physical working conditions on workers’ productivity and efficiency
Hawthorne Studies
In the context of the human relations approach to management, after conducting the four stages of the _____, Mayo and his team eventually concluded that productivity and employee behavior were influenced by the informal work group.
Hawthorne Studies
In the context of classical approaches to management, proponents of the ____ approach argued that managers should stress primarily employee welfare, motivation, and communication.
human relations
In the context of classical approaches to management, which of the following is a principle of the human relations approach?
Social needs have precedence over economic needs
Which classical approach to management advocates that management must gain the cooperation of the group and promote job satisfaction and group norms consistent with the goals of the organization?
human relations
Which of the following is true of Abraham Maslow’s contribution to the field of human relations?
He suggested that humans have five levels of needs
According to Abraham Maslow, the most advanced human need is for:
self-actualization
Abraham Maslow suggested that the most basic human need(s) is/are the:
physical needs
In the context of the human relations approach to management, _____ argued that people try to satisfy their lower-level needs and then progress upward to the higher-level needs.
Abraham Maslow
In the context of classical approaches to management, _____ suggested that managers can facilitate the process of moving to higher-level needs after satisfaction of lower-level needs, and achieve organizational goals by removing obstacles and encouraging behaviors that satisfy people’s needs and organizational goals simultaneously.
Abraham Maslow
Which of the following is a criticism of the human relations approach to management?
The important characteristics of the formal organization are ignored
In the context of classical approaches to management, critics believed that one result of the _____ approach—a belief that a happy worker was a productive worker—was too simplistic.
human relations
In the context of classical approaches to management, the _____ approach was a significant step in the development of management thought because it prompted managers and researchers to consider the psychological and social factors that influence performance.
human relations
Which of the following is a contemporary approach to management?
quantitative management
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, the _____ theory was developed in the early 1950s by researchers from the London-based Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.
sociotechnical systems
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, research on _____ promoted the use of teamwork and semiautonomous work groups as important factors for creating efficient production systems.
sociotechnical systems theory
Which of the following is true of the sociotechnical systems theory?
It was put into action in the late 1980s and 1990s when each of the large U.S. automakers created cooperative ventures with the major Japanese automakers.
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, managers may use _____ to compare alternatives and eliminate weaker options.
quantitative management
Which of the following is an explanation that accounts for the limited use of quantitative management?
many of the decisions managers fave are non-routine and unpredictable
In the context of contemporary approaches to management, the use of _____ has been limited because many aspects of a management decision cannot be expressed through mathematical symbols and formulas.
quantitative management
_____ is a contemporary management approach that studies and identifies management activities that promote employee effectiveness by examining the complex and dynamic nature of individual, group, and organizational processes.
organizational behavior
A manager assume workers are lazy and irresponsible and require constant supervision and external motivation to achieve organizational goals. Which of the following theories of management does the manager subscribe to?
Theory X
When a manager treats employees as lazy, unmotivated, and in need of tight supervision; then the employees eventually meet the manager’s expectations by acting that way. According to Douglas McGregor, this is known as a:
self-fulfilling prophecy
McGregor advocated a _____, suggesting that managers who encourage participation and allow opportunities for individual challenge and initiative would achieve superior performance.
Theory Y perspective
_____, a major organizational behaviorist, recommended greater autonomy and better jobs for workers.
Chris Argyris
In the context of organizational behavior, _____ stressed the value of participative management.
Rensis Likert
Which of the following is a criticism of the classical approaches to management?
The relationship between the organization and its external environment is ignored.
In the context of the systems theory, human resources, capital, and raw material are examples of _____.
inputs
The _____ refutes universal principles of management by stating that a variety of factors, both internal and external to the firm, may affect the organization’s performance.
contingency perspective
In the context of the systems theory, factors that determine the appropriateness of managerial actions are known as _____.
contingencies
In the context of the systems theory, understanding _____ helps a manager know which sets of circumstances dictate which management actions.
contingencies
The values, goals, skills, and attitudes of managers and workers in the organization are examples of _____.
contingencies
In the context of modern contributors, _____ discovered that great companies are managed by “level 5 leaders” who often display humility while simultaneously inspiring those in the organization to apply self-discipline and self-responsibility while pursuing high standards.
Jim Collins
The ex-CEO of General Electric, _____, is widely viewed as having mastered “all of the critical aspects of leadership: people, process, strategy and structure.”
Jack Welch
Who is sometimes criticized for his controversial practices such as selling off underperforming divisions and forced rankings of employees by performance?
Jack Welch
Competitive Strategy: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance is a book written by _____, a Professor at Harvard University, who is an influential expert on competitive strategy.
Michael Porter
_____, Professor at Harvard University, has published an influential research article titled “The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy.”
Michael Porter
_____, written by Gary Hamel, was selected by Amazon.com as the best business book of 2007.
The Future of Management
Which of the following is the title of an influential article published by Gary Hamel?
“The Core Competence of the Corporation”
In the context of modern contributors, one of the major contributions of _____ was the need for organizations to set clear objectives and establish the means of evaluating progress toward those objectives.
Peter Drucker
In the context of modern contributors, _____ championed several ideas that continue to be influential to this day, including decentralization, employees as assets (not liabilities), corporation as a human community, and the importance of knowledge workers in the new information economy.
Peter Drucker
The book Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution written by _____ with coauthor Sumatra Ghoshal was named by the Financial Times as one of the 50 most influential business books of the 20th century.
Christopher A. Bartlett
Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman wrote the best-selling book _____, which urged U.S. firms to fight their competition by refocusing their business strategies on several drivers of success: people, customers, values, culture, action, and an entrepreneurial spirit.
In Search of Excellence
In his book the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change, Stephen Covey:
Discussed how a leader’s success hinges on balancing between personal and professional effectiveness
In the context of managerial approaches, which of the following is true of change?
If one does not anticipate change and adapt to it, one’s firm will not thrive in a competitive business environment
In the context of the above scenario, which of the following approaches to management does Sarah subscribe to?
Contingency perspective
In the context of the above scenario, which of the following is true of Sarah’s beliefs?
There is no “one best way” to manage and organize because circumstances vary
In the context of the above scenario, which of the following approaches to management does Pinnacle Corp. follow?
Bureaucracy
In the context of the above scenario, which of the following is true of the organizational structure of Pinnacle Corp.?
A chain of command or hierarchy is well established

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