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MGMT 360 Chapter 2 Test Questions

A historical perspective provides a narrower way of thinking, a way of searching for patterns and determining whether they recur across time periods
False
Social forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
True
Political forces are aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
False
Economic forces pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society.
True
. The early study of management as we know it today began with what is now called the technology-driven workplace
False
The classical perspective on management emerged during the 1800s.
True
The humanistic perspective contains three subfields: scientific management, bureaucratic organizations, and administrative principles.
False
Frederick W. Taylor developed Systems Thinking and emphasized the fourteen principles of management that should guide managerial behavior.
False
Scientific management evolved with the use of precise procedures in place of tradition and rules of thumb.
True
A criticism of human relations management is that it ignores the social context and workers’ needs.
False
One of the criticisms of scientific management is it did not acknowledge variance among individuals.
True
Standardization of work and wage incentives are characteristics of behavioral science.
False
Scientific management developed a standard method for performing each job.
True
With clear definitions of authority and responsibility, division of labor is one of the six characteristics of the ideal bureaucracy.
True
Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing is one of the six characteristics of the ideal bureaucracy.
True
Fayol’s unity of command principle emphasizes that each subordinate receives orders from one, and only one superior.
True
Unity of direction principle proposes that similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager.
True
The scalar chain is a hypothetical chain that provides horizontal links between unionized workers in different departments in an organization.
False
Scientific management focuses on employee competence, whereas administrative principles focus on work flow through the organization.
False
Follett and Barnard were early advocates of a more humanistic perspective on management that emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes.
True
Unfortunately, Mary Parker Follett’s approach to leadership stressed the importance of engineering techniques rather than people.
False
A social group within an organization is part of the informal organization.
True
The Hawthorne studies resulted in the movement towards scientific management.
False
The human relations movement is also referred to as the dairy farm view of management, meaning that contented cows give more milk, and satisfied workers will give more work.
True
The Hawthorne studies led to the early conclusion that positive human relations can lead to significantly higher performance.
True
Theory Y proposes that organizations can take advantage of the imagination and intellect of all of their employees.
True
According to Douglas McGregor, Theory X and Theory Y provide two opposing views of workers, where Theory X recognizes that workers enjoy achievement and responsibility, while Theory Y recognizes that workers will avoid work whenever possible.
False
An assumption of Theory Y is that the average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.
False
The Systems Thinking approach develops theories about human behavior based on scientific methods and study.
False
Organization development is a specific set of management techniques based in the behavioral science approach.
True
The scientific management perspective refers to the management thinking and practice that emphasizes satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity.
False
The management science approach uses qualitative data in management decision making.
False
The field of management that specializes in the physical production of goods or services refers to operations management.
True
Information technology is the most recent subfield of the quantitative perspective.
True
The term “quants” refers to financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis, under assumption that using advanced mathematics and technology can accurately predict how the market works.
True
Contingency thinking is the ability to see both the distinct elements of a system or situation and the complex and changing interaction among those elements.
False
When the shop foreman receives and rewards valuable suggestions from its workers, and this leads to continual improvement of production, synergy has occurred.
True
Discerning circles of causality is an important element of systems thinking.
True
Contingency theory suggests that managers are more successful if they learn the best way to manage and motivate their employees, and then apply this knowledge in a universally consistent way.
False
A contingency view argues that there is one best way to manage an organization.
False
The inherent focus of TQM is on managing the total organization to deliver quality to the customer.
True
Although developed by a Japanese business manager, the quality movement is strongly associated with American companies.
False
Benchmarking involves finding out what the customer wants.
False
A process whereby companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it refers to outsourcing.
False
The implementation of small, incremental improvements in all areas of the organization on an ongoing basis refers to continuous improvement.
True
Six Sigma refers to an innovation mindset, used widely by Indian companies, that strives to meet customers’ immediate needs quickly and inexpensively
False
Supply chain management refers to the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers.
True
Customer relationship management systems collect and manage large amounts of data about customers and make them available to employees.
True
A supply chain is a network of multiple businesses and individuals that are connected through the flow of products or services.
True
An innovation mindset that strives to meet customers’ immediate needs quickly and inexpensively is referred to as:
a. kaizen.
b. just-in-time control.
c. total quality management.
d. jugaad.
e. XY Theory.
D. jugaad
A(n) _____ perspective provides a broader way of thinking, a way of searching for patterns, and determining whether they recur across time periods.
a. analytical
b. futuristic
c. systematic
d. methodical
e. historical
E. historical
_____ forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
a. Social
b. Political
c. Economic
d. Technological
e. Legal
A. social
Which of these forces comprises unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships?
a. Economic forces
b. Political forces
c. Social forces
d. Legal forces
e. Personal forces
C. social forces
Jessica is a recent college graduate who is seeking a job that includes telecommuting, shared jobs, flextime, and organization-sponsored sabbaticals. Based on this information, Jessica most likely belongs to which demographic group?
a. Baby Boomer
b. Generation X
c. Generation Y
d. Generation Z
e. Tweener
C. generation y
Which of these forces pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society?
a. Social
b. Political
c. Economic
d. Technological
e. Legal
C. economic
Strong anti-American sentiments in many parts of the world exemplify the effect of:
a. economic forces.
b. political forces.
c. demographic forces.
d. technological forces.
e. human relations forces.
B. political forces
The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the development of which management perspective?
a. The human relations movement
b. The behavioral sciences approach
c. The classical perspective
d. The quantitative management approach
e. The TQM approach
c. the classical perspective
Which of these perspectives emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines?
a. The Humanistic Perspective
b. The Behavioral Sciences Approach
c. The Classical Perspective
d. The TQM approach
e. The Quantitative Management Approach
C. the classical perspective
Which of these is a subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity?
a. The human relations movement
b. The behavioral sciences approach
c. The TQM approach
d. The quantitative management approach
e. The scientific management movement
E. the scientific management movement
Frank Gilbreth felt that efficiency equated with:
a. one best way to do work.
b. leadership flows from the top down.
c. procedures and policies.
d. scientific management.
e. bureaucracy.
A. one best way to do work
Time and motion studies that resulted in drastic reduction in the time patients spent on the operating table were pioneered by _____.
a. Edward Deming
b. Henry Gantt
c. Max Weber
d. Mary Parker Follett
e. Frank Gilbreth
E. frank gilbreth
Who is considered the “first lady of management?”
a. Mary Parker Follett
b. Lillian Gilbreth
c. Carly Fiorona
d. Maxine Weber
e. Anne Adams
B. Lillian Gilbreth
The three subfields of the classical perspective include:
a. quantitative management, behavioral science, and administrative management.
b. bureaucratic organization, quantitative management, and the human relations movement.
c. administrative management, bureaucratic organization, and scientific management.
d. scientific management, quantitative management, and administrative management.
e. none of these.
C. administrative management, bureaucratic organization, and scientific management
_____ is considered the “father of scientific management.”
a. Frank B. Gilbreth
b. Elton Mayo
c. Henry Gantt
d. Douglas McGregor
e. Frederick W. Taylor
E. Frederick Taylor
Which of the following is a bar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage of production by time elapsed?
a. Time and Work chart
b. Gantt chart
c. Time and Motion chart
d. Production and Delivery chart
e. Gilbreth chart
B. Gantt chart
Frederick Taylor’s contributions were in the field of:
a. scientific management.
b. human resource management.
c. human relations.
d. quantitative management.
e. total quality management.
A. scientific management
Which of the following is not a criticism of scientific management?
a. It does not appreciate the social context of work.
b. It does not appreciate the higher needs of workers.
c. It does not appreciate the careful study of tasks and jobs.
d. It does not acknowledge variance among individuals.
e. It tends to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions.
C. it does not appreciate the careful study of tasks and jobs
Standardization of work and wage incentives are characteristics of:
a. bureaucratic organizations.
b. scientific management.
c. quantitative management.
d. administrative management.
e. behavioral science.
B. scientific management
Which of these is a major criticism of scientific management?
a. It ignored the social context of work.
b. It ignored the impact of compensation on performance.
c. It overemphasized individual differences.
d. It overemphasized the intelligence of workers.
e. It emphasized the social context of work.
A. it ignored the social context of work
The assembly line is most consistent with which of the following general principles of management?
a. Unity of command
b. Division of work
c. Authority
d. Scalar chain
e. Quality management
B. division of work
The bureaucratic organizations approach is a subfield within the _____.
a. classical perspective
b. systems theory
c. scientific management
d. learning organization
e. management science view
A. classical perspective
According to Weber’s ideas on bureaucracy, organizations should be based on which of these?
a. Personal loyalty
b. Personal references
c. Rational authority
d. Family ties
e. Charismatic authority
C. rational authority
Whereas scientific management focused on _____ , administrative principles approach focused on the _____.
a. individual productivity; total organization
b. organization productivity; individual effort
c. efficient procedures; management by principle
d. employee ability; employee loyalty
e. employee competence; work flow through the organization
A. individual productivity; total organization
Archies’ Antiques, Inc., is characterized by separation of management from ownership and by clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility. These characteristics are consistent with the principles of:
a. scientific management.
b. bureaucratic organizations.
c. administrative management theory.
d. human resource management.
e. all of these.
B. bureaucratic organizations
All of the following are characteristics of Weberian bureaucracy except:
a. labor is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsibility that are legitimized as official duties.
b. positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority, with each position under the authority of a higher one.
c. all personnel are selected and promoted based on technical qualifications.
d. administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing.
e. management is the same as the ownership of the organization.
E. management is the same as the ownership of the organization
Max Weber felt selection of employees should be based on _____.
a. education
b. competence
c. connections
d. political skills
e. efficient systems
B. competence
Matrix Dress Designs operates using the concept of empowerment, where employees act independently and with management facilitating rather than controlling workers. These qualities represent which management approach?
a. Administrative principles approach
b. Bureaucratic approach
c. Scientific management approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Behavioral sciences approach
D. humanistic approach
Positions organized in a hierarchy of authority is an important characteristic of:
a. scientific management.
b. bureaucratic organizations.
c. quantitative management.
d. the human relations movement.
e. total quality management.
B. bureaucratic organizations
UPS is successful in the small package delivery market. One important reason for this success is the concept of:
a. globalization.
b. employee flexibility.
c. loose standards.
d. bureaucracy.
e. non-bureaucratic organizational system.
D. bureaucracy
Mary Parker Follett contributed to which field?
a. Humanistic approach
b. Scientific management approach
c. Total quality management approach
d. Quantitative approach to management
e. Systems approach to management
A. humanistic approach
The principle that similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager is the essence of the classical perspective known as:
a. unity of command.
b. division of work.
c. unity of direction.
d. scalar chain.
e. quality management.
C. unity of direction
The use of specialization to produce more and better work with the same level of effort is consistent with the administrative management principle of:
a. unity of command.
b. unity of direction.
c. scalar chain.
d. division of work.
e. none of these
D. division of work
Genex Dynamics is a ballistics company that uses the unity of command, scalar chain, and division of work principles. These are part of which management philosophy?
a. Administrative principles approach
b. Bureaucratic approach
c. Scientific management approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Behavioral sciences approach
A. administrative principles approach
The _____ refers to a chain of authority extending from top to the bottom of the organization and including every employee.
a. unity of command
b. division of labor
c. unity of direction
d. scalar chain
e. none of these
D. scalar chain
Mary Parker Follett thought of leadership as _____, rather than techniques.
a. systems
b. top managers
c. people
d. efficiencies
e. floor managers
C. people
A key finding in the Hawthorne studies was which of these?
a. Stronger lighting increased productivity.
b. More money resulted in increased productivity.
c. Productivity declined in all experiments.
d. Higher temperatures reduced productivity.
e. Human relations increased productivity.
E. human relations increased productivity
Chester Bernard felt that _____ could help a poorly managed organization.
a. bureaucracy
b. line managers
c. efficiencies
d. informal relations
e. top/down flow of information
D. informal relations
The findings provided by the Hawthorne Studies provided the impetus for the _____, despite flawed methodology or inaccurate conclusions.
a. classical perspective
b. humanistic perspective
c. scientific management
d. bureaucratic organizations
e. contingency perspective
B. humanistic perspective
A social group within an organization is part of the:
a. formal organizational structure.
b. informal organization.
c. scalar chain.
d. reorganization process.
e. top management level.
B. informal organization
A significant contribution of Chester Barnard was the concept of:
a. bureaucracy.
b. the informal organization.
c. total quality management.
d. scientific management.
e. traditional theory of authority.
B. the informal organization
The human resources perspective of management links motivation theories with _____.
a. top management
b. employee tasks
c. floor managers
d. efficiencies
e. profit maximization
B. employee tasks
A “dairy farm” view of management, i.e., contented cows give more milk, so satisfied workers will give more work was espoused by:
a. human relations management.
b. human resource perspective.
c. behavioral science approach.
d. management science perspective.
e. none of these.
A. human relations management
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs started with which of these needs?
a. Esteem
b. Love
c. Safety
d. Physiological
e. Belongingness
D. physiological
Tommy believes his employees are responsible, creative, and able to work with minimal direction. He is a:
a. theory X manager.
b. theory Y manager.
c. theory Z manager.
d. theory A manager.
e. contingency theory manager.
B. theory Y manager
Theory X and Theory Y was developed by _____.
a. Douglas McGregor
b. Henry Gantt
c. Max Weber
d. Mary Parker Follett
e. Frank Gilbreth
A. Douglas McGregor
Beth Brant, production supervisor at Trustworthy Tools Mfg., Inc. believes that her employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and therefore they need to be controlled and directed. Beth is a:
a. theory X manager.
b. theory Y manager.
c. realistic manager.
d. theory Z manager.
e. theory J manager.
A. Theory X manager
According to Douglas McGregor, the classical perspective on management is consistent with which of the following?
a. Theory X manager
b. Theory Y manager
c. Theory Z manager
d. Theory A manager
e. None of these
A. Theory X manager
The behavioral sciences approach is based on which of the following disciplines?
a. Anthropology
b. Economics
c. Sociology
d. Psychology
e. All of these
E. All of these
Organizational development is one specific set of management techniques based in the _____ approach.
a. management science
b. systems theory
c. behavioral sciences
d. scientific management
e. quantitative
C. behavioral sciences
The Forestville Freeze is regionally known for its employee training programs. Managers at the Freeze conduct research to determine the best candidate interviewing techniques. This involves the use of which management approach?
a. Administrative principles approach
b. Bureaucratic approach
c. Behavioral sciences approach
d. Humanistic approach
e. Scientific management approach
C. behavioral sciences approach
The management science perspective emerged after World War II to treat problems associated with:
a. modern global warfare.
b. environmental issues.
c. employee involvement.
d. Germany.
e. improving manufacturing.
A. modern global warfare
Which of these refers to the management thinking and practice that emphasizes satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity?
a. Scientific management perspective
b. Human resource perspective
c. Management science perspective
d. Behavioral sciences approach
e. Human relations movement
E. human relations movement
Within his role as a financial accountant, Roger uses the capital asset pricing model and other mathematical tools to help clients keep track of their finances. Which perspective or approach does Roger apply most at his work?
a. Quantitative perspective
b. Qualitative perspective
c. Humanistic approach
d. Behavioral science approach
e. Scientific management approach
A. quantitative perspective
The _____ emphasized the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes.
a. humanistic perspective
b. classical perspective
c. scientific management
d. bureaucratic organizations
e. contingency perspective
A. humanistic perspective
Most early interpretations of the Hawthorne studies argued that the factor that best explained increased output was _____.
a. money
b. days off
c. human relations
d. lighting
e. free food
C. human relations
The management science perspective applies all of the following to managerial problems EXCEPT:
a. statistics.
b. qualitative techniques.
c. mathematics.
d. quantitative techniques.
e. all of these are correct.
B. qualitative techniques
Operations research grew out of World War II groups and is based on _____.
a. group dynamics
b. employees in crisis
c. production in turbulent times
d. mathematical equations
e. a humanistic approach
D. mathematical equations
Which of the following refers to financial managers and others who base their decisions on complex quantitative analysis, under assumption that using advanced mathematics and technology can accurately predict how the market works?
a. Stems
b. Yuppies
c. Quals
d. Quants
e. Fins
D. quants
The most recent subfield of the quantitative perspective is _____, which is reflected in management information systems designed to provide relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner.
a. operations research
b. operations management
c. information technology
d. systems thinking
e. infrastructure development
C. information technology
The teamwork philosophy is based in part on the assumption that five people working together can produce more than five people working individually. This philosophy is consistent with the concept of _____.
a. transformation
b. entropy
c. synergy
d. feedback
e. quality
C. synergy
From the 1950s until today, which management perspective has remained the most prevalent?
a. Systems
b. Qualitative
c. Scientific management
d. Quantitative
e. Humanistic
E. humanistic
Georgia, an airline CEO, often looks for patterns of movement within the airline industry, focusing on the qualities of rhythm, flow, direction, shape, and networks of relationships. This type of activity, referred to as _____ thinking, allows Georgia to see the structures that underlie complex situations within the industry and company.
a. systems
b. qualitative
c. quantitative
d. conceptual
e. contingency
A. systems
It is often difficult to make decisions about subsystems because they are _____.
a. interdependent
b. independent
c. managed differently
d. filled with employees
e. organizationally based
A. interdependent
After decades of being a manager, Jeffrey has learned that an organizational structure that is effective for one company is likely to be ineffective for a different company. This knowledge reflects which current management perspective?
a. Systems thinking
b. Contingency view
c. Total quality management
d. Benchmarking
e. Scientific management view
B. contingency view
In _____, every situation is viewed as unique.
a. a universalist view
b. a contingency view
c. a case view
d. a scientific management view
e. none of these
C. case view
In order to determine how to deal with a problem employee, Sharon evaluated the employee, the problem, and the context in which the problem occurred. She is applying which of the following perspectives?
a. Participative view
b. Universalist view
c. Autonomy view
d. Contingency view
e. Humanist view
D. contingency view
A consultant who recommends the effectiveness of sensitivity training to every organization he serves is violating the basics of which of the following perspectives?
a. Efficiency perspective
b. Universalist perspective
c. Contingency perspective
d. Scientific management perspective
e. Quantitative perspective
C. contingency perspective
Which of the following is often considered the “father of the quality movement?”
a. Weber
b. Gilbreth
c. Follett
d. Deming
e. Gehrke
D. deming
____ focuses on managing the whole organization to deliver quality to customers.
a. Bureaucracy
b. Theory Z
c. Management-by-objective
d. Total quality management
e. Organization-customer relationship
D. total quality management
Elements of TQM include:
a. employee detachment.
b. focus on profits.
c. benchmarking.
d. accidental improvement.
e. all of these.
C. benchmarking
_____ is a process whereby companies find out how others do something better than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it.
a. TQM
b. Continuous improvement
c. Benchmarking
d. Empowerment
e. MBO
C. benchmarking
The implementation of small incremental improvements in all areas of the organization on an ongoing basis is referred to as:
a. benchmarking.
b. empowerment.
c. systems theory.
d. contingency perspective.
e. continuous improvement.
E. continuous improvement
Which of the following refers to managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers?
a. E-commerce
b. E-business
c. Supply chain management
d. Knowledge management
e. Customer relationship management
C. supply chain management
Which of the following uses the latest information technology to keep in close touch with customers and to collect and manage large amounts of customer data?
a. Supply Chain Management
b. Learning Organizations
c. Scientific Management
d. Customer Relationship Management
e. The Humanistic Approach
D. customer relationship management
Which of the following is identified as a recent trend that has staying power?
a. Corporate takeovers
b. Hedging
c. Insourcing
d. Relationship management
e. Task management
D. relationship management

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