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MGMT 373 Chapter 9

Employee Development
Combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their careers.
Development is about preparing for change in the form of new jobs, new responsibilities, or new requirements.
“Future Oriented”
Implies learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s current job. It prepares employees for other positions in the organization and increases their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist.
Traditionally focuses on helping employees improve performance of their current jobs.
Training vs. Development
Training vs. Development
Protean Career
A career that frequently changes based on changes in the person’s interests, abilities, and values and in the work environment.
To remain marketable, employees must continually develop new skills.
Consistent with modern Psychological Contract
(1) determine their interests, skills, and weaknesses
(2) seek development experiences involving jobs, relationships, and formal courses.
As organizations provide for employee development (and as employees take control of their own careers), they will need to do what 2 things?
Career Management
“Development Planning”
Helps employees select development activities that prepare them to meet their career goals
An employee starts out as a sales person, then becomes an account manager, gets promoted to sales manager, and is now VP of Sales. Which type of career did this employee have?
A Protean
B Traditional
C Glass ceiling
D Dead end
Formal education
Job experiences
Interpersonal relationships.
What are 4 main approaches to employee development?
Formal Education
These may include:
-Short courses
-Business games
-Experiential programs
Many companies operate training and development centers.
Collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills.
Information may come from the employees, their peers, managers, and customers.
Ex: assigning an activity to a team and seeing who brings what skills and strengths to the team
1. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
2. Assessment Center
3. Benchmarks Assessment
4. Performance Appraisal
5. 360-Degree Feedback
What are 5 assessment tools
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Psychological test that identifies individuals’ preferences for source of energy, means of information gathering, way of decision making, and lifestyle, providing information for team building and leadership development.
Most popular test for employee development.
Assessment consists of 100 + questions about how the person feels or prefers to behave in different situations.
valuable tool for understanding communication styles and the ways people prefer to interact with others. It is not appropriate for measuring job performance, however, or as the only means of evaluating promotion potential
Where individuals gain interpersonal strength and vitality, measured as their degree of introversion or extroversion
-E: interperonal relation
-I: Inner thoughts and feelings
Information Gathering
Relates to the preparation individuals make before making decisions
-Sensing: Gather facts/details
-Intuitive: Possibilities and Relationships
Decision Making
Amount of consideration they give to their own and others values and feelings
-Thinking: Objective
-Feeling: Subjective
Individuals tendency to be either flexible or structured
-Judging: Focus on goals, deadlines
-Perceiving: Enjoy surprises, changing decisions
tend to be serious, quiet, practical, orderly, and logical. They may have difficulty responding to unexpected opportunities, appear to their colleagues to be too task-oriented or impersonal, and make decisions too fast. Applying this kind of information about employees’ preferences or tendencies helps organizations understand the communication, motivation, teamwork, work styles, and leadership of the people in their groups.
Assessment Centers
An assessment process in which multiple raters or evaluators (assessors) evaluate employees’ performance on a number of exercises, usually as they work in a group at an offsite location.
is to identify whether employees have the personality characteristics, administrative skills, and interpersonal skills needed for managerial jobs. Organizations also use them to determine whether employees have the skills needed for working in teams.
The types of exercises used in assessment centers include leaderless group discussions, interviews, in-baskets, and role-plays.
Leaderless Group Discussions
In a team of 5 to 7 employees assigned a problem and must work together to solve it within a certain time period
A measurement tool that gathers ratings of a manager’s use of skills associated with success in managing.
based on research into the lessons that executives learn in critical events of their careers.
. Items measure the 16 skills and perspectives listed in including how well managers deal with subordinates, acquire resources, and create a productive work climate.
Manager Skills
Manager Skills
Performance Appraisal
Process of measuring employees’ performance. Managers must be trained to deliver frequent performance feedback and must monitor employees’ progress in carrying out their action plans.
1. must tell employees specifically about their performance problems and ways to improve their performance.
2. Employees must gain a clear understanding of differences between current and expected performance.
3. Appraisal process must identify causes of performance discrepancy and develop plans for improving performance.
360-degree feedback
Most likely to be effective if the rating instrument enables reliable or consistent ratings, assesses behaviors or skills that are job related, and is easy to use.
This method demands a significant amount of time for raters to complete the evaluations.
If raters, especially subordinates or peers, provide negative feedback, some managers might try to identify and punish them.
A facilitator is needed to help interpret results. Finally, simply delivering ratings to a manager does not provide ways for the manager to act on the feedback (for example, development planning, meeting with raters, or taking courses). Raters identify an area of behavior as a strength of the employee or an area requiring further development.
Results presented to employee show how rating on each item and how self-evaluations differ from other raters’ evaluations.
Individual reviews results, seeks clarification from raters, and sets specific development goals based on strengths and weaknesses identified.
What are 15 skills related to success of a manager?
Confronting Problems
Self awareness
Balanced Life
Compassion /Sensitivity
Team Oriented
Building Relationships
Leading Subordinates
Hiring talented Staff
Putting people at ease
Doing Whatever it takes
Being a quick study
Sarah participated in leaderless group discussions and in-basket exercises and was observed by a number of raters. Which assessment method was used for Sarah?
A. Interview
B. Performance appraisal
C. Assessment Center
D. Coaching
Job Experience
combination of tasks, relationships, problems, demands and other features of an employee’s jobs.
develop skills needed for teamwork, including conflict resolution, data analysis, and customer service. These experiences may occur when forming a team and when employees switch roles within a team. Various job assignments can provide for employee development. The organization may enlarge the employee’s current job or move the employee to different jobs.Through these experiences, managers learn how to handle common challenges, and prove themselves.
The organization may also use downward moves or promotions as a source
1. Job assignments
2. Interpersonal relationships
3. Types of transitions
What are 3 key job experience events?
Job Experience.
Most employee development occurs through___?
Lateral moves
Includes: job rotation, transfer, or temporary assignment to another organization.
Job Enlargement
Job Enlargement
Adding challenges or new responsibilities to employees current jobs.
Makes jobs more interest and creates an opportunity for employees to develop new skills
Job Rotation
Moving employees through a series of job assignments in one or more functional areas.
Helps employees gain appreciation for company goals
Organization assigns an employee to a position in a different area of the company.
Lateral moves, where move to a job with a similar level of responsibility .
Ex: Relocation
Downward Move
Employee is given less responsibility and authority.
Temporary Cross-Functional Move
What is the most common downward move?
Moving an employee into a position with greater challenges, more responsibility and more authority than in the previous job
A full time temporary position at another organization. Employees in analytical
A leave of absence from an organization to renew a develop skills. Receive full time pay. Lets employees get away from the day to day stress of their jobs and more time for personal pursuit.
1. Mentor
2. Coaching
What are 2 types of relationships used for employee development?
An experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee, called the protégé.
Develop informally as a result of interests or values shared by the mentor and protégé.
Organization’s planned effort to bring together successful senior employees with less-experienced employees. Help ensure access to mentors for all employees, regardless of gender or race and ensure that high-potential employees are matched with wise, experienced mentors in key areas.
Group Mentoring
assign four to six protégés to a successful senior employee.
a peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate the employee, help him or her develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.
three roles:
1. Working one-on-one with an employee, as when giving feedback.
2. Helping employees learn for themselves—for example, helping them find experts
and teaching them to obtain feedback from others.
3. Providing resources such as mentors, courses, or job experiences.
Phyllis is in the process of understanding what possibilities exist for her within the organization based on her strengths and developmental areas. Which phase of the career management process is she in?
a. Self Assessment
b. Reality Check
c. Goal Setting
d. Action Planning
What are 4 steps in career management?
What are 4 steps in career management?
Data Gathering
In this stage employees embark on a process of Self-Assessment:
The employee’s responsibility is to identify opportunities and personal areas needing improvement.
The organization’s responsibility is to provide assessment information for identifying strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values.
Self Assessment
Use of information by employees to determine career interests, values, aptitudes, behavioral tendencies, and development needs.
Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory: Occupational and Job interests
Self-Directed Search: Preference in different working environments
Information employers give employees about their skills and knowledge and where these assets fit into the organization’s plans.
The employee’s responsibility is to identify what skills he or she could realistically develop in light of the opportunities available.
The organization’s responsibility is to communicate the performance evaluation and the opportunities available to the employee, given the organization’s long-range plans.
Self Assessment Exercise
Self Assessment Exercise
Goal Setting
Based on information from self-assessment and reality check, employee sets short- and long-term career objectives.
Desired positions
Level of skill to apply
Work setting
Skill acquisition
1. Desired positions, such as becoming sales manager within three years,
2. Level of skill to apply,
3. Work setting
4. Skill acquisition.
What are 4 things goals include?
Action Planning
Employees prepare an action plan for how they will achieve their short- and long-term career goals.
Any one or a combination of development methods may be used, depending on development need and career objectives.
The employee is responsible for identifying the steps and timetable to reach the goals.
The employer should identify resources needed, including courses, work experiences, and relationships.
Glass Ceiling
Circumstances resembling an invisible barrier that keep most women and minorities from attaining the top jobs in organizations.
likely caused by a lack of access to training programs, appropriate developmental job experiences, and developmental relationships such as mentoring or may not participate in the “old boy’s network.”. Managers making developmental assignments need to carefully consider whether stereotypes are influencing the types of assignments men and women receive. A formal process for regularly identifying development needs and creating action plans can make these decisions more objective.
Succession Planning
Process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who will be able to fill top management positions.
A typical approach to development of high-potential employees is to have them complete an individual development program including education, executive mentoring and coaching, and rotation through job assignments. Job assignments are based on the successful career paths of the managers whom the high-potential employees are preparing to replace. High-potential employees may also receive developmental experiences, special assignments, such as making presentations and serving on committees and task forces and active involvement with the CEO.
1. Identify Postions to plan for
2. Identify Employees to include
3. Define Job Requirements
4. Measure Employee Potential
5. Review and Plan to meet development needs
6. Link succession planning with Other HR Systems
7. Provide Feedback to employees
8. Measure plan of effectiveness
What is the 8 step process for developing succession plans?
Dysfunctional Managers
Manager who is otherwise competent may engage in some behaviors that make him or her ineffective or even “toxic” – stifles ideas and drives away good employees.
Dysfunctional behavior:
1. insensitivity to others
2. inability to be a team player,
3. arrogance,
4. poor conflict-management skills, i
5. Inability to meet business objectives,
6. Inability to adapt to change
insensitivity to others
inability to be a team player
poor conflict management skills
inability to meet business objectives
inability to adapt to change
Behaviors of Dysfunctional Managers?
Individual Coaching for Effectiveness (ICE)
Specialized Program diagnosis, coaching, and support activities tailored to each manager’s needs.
Average 32-year old has already worked for 7 different firms.
1. There are more horizontal “ladders” in middle management than upward moves.
2. Companies focus on employee’s career steps rather than their core competencies.
3. Careers are now more a series of projects, rather than upward steps in an organization
4. Career development primarily applies to managers.
5. Organization manages employee’s careers more so than the individual.

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