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MGMT CH. 1

_____ is defined as getting work done through others.
Management
Fruitlicious is a fruit juice manufacturing company. The company ensures that all the raw materials are used well and minimal waste is produced. The juice extraction and packaging units are designed in such way that quality is maintained with minimal costs. It can be said that Fruitlicious demonstrates _____.
Efficiency
Managers must strive for _____, which is accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives such as customer service and satisfaction.
Effectiveness
_____ involves determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them.
Planning
The function of _____ typically involves deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom in the company.
Organizing
_____ refers to monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
Controlling
As the human resources manager at Hayden Engineering and Manufacturing Corp, Kim had to find effective ways to reward high performing employees and boost their morale during an economic downturn. Which management function did Kim have to engage in?
Leading
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
Interpersonal, Informational, Decisional
Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead, leader, liaison
Informational Roles
Monitor, Disseminator, spokesperson
Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Mangers who perform ceremonial duties
Figurehead
Managers who motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives
Leader
Managers who deal with people outside of their unit
Liaison
Managers who scan their environment for information
Monitor
Managers that share information with people outside of their departments or companies
Spokesperson
Managers who adapt themselves, their subordinates, and their units to change
Entrepreneur
Managers who respond to pressures and problems that demand immediate action
Disturbance Handler
Mangers who share collected information with subordinates and others in their departments or companies
Disseminator
Managers who decide who gets what resources and in what amounts
Resource allocator
Managers who negotiate schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises
Negotiator
_____ are executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization.
Top Managers
It is typically the responsibility of _____ to develop employees’ commitment to and ownership of the company’s performance.
Top Managers
Middle managers
Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives- “manage other managers”
First-line managers
Encourage, monitor, and reward the performances of their employees
Team Leaders
Facilitate team activities toward goal achievement
A ____ for a fast-food restaurant would be responsible for giving instructions to the staff and for setting up weekly work schedules.
First-line Manager
According to Mintzberg, which of the following is one of the three major roles managers fulfill while performing their jobs?
Interpersonal Roles
The informational role managers’ play when they share information they have collected with their subordinates and others in the company is called the ____ role.
Disseminator
In the _____ managerial role, managers discuss and handle schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises.
Negotiator
In the context of decisional roles, managers who assume the _____ role respond to pressures and problems so severe that they demand immediate attention and action.
Disturbance handler
_____ skills can be summarized as the ability to work well with others.
Human
Conceptual Skills
The ability to see the organization as a whole, understand how the different parts affect each other, and recognize how the company fits into or is affected by its environment
An accountant with ____ has the ability to create a budget, compare the budget to the actual income statement, and determine unnecessary expenses.
Technical Skill
Which type of skills are the most important to the success of lower-level managers?
Technical Skills
What type of skills are equally important at all levels of management?
Human Skills
Which skill is needed to get employees to participate in competitive situations?
Motivation to manage
What is a characteristic of derailers?
They are abrasive and intimidating
According to Linda Hill’s study, which of the following is typically an expectation that managers have during the initial stages of management?
They believe that they need to be “the boss”
_____ is the ultimate form of commitment companies can make to their workers.
Employment Security
Selective Hiring
When the company aggressively recruits and selectively screens applicants in order to hire the most talented employees available
Self-managed teams
Responsible for their own hiring, purchasing, job assignments, and production
Decentralization
Allows employees who are closest to and most knowledgeable about problems, production, and customers to make timely decisions
According to ____, the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place.
The contingency approach
Frederick Taylor
“Father of Scientific Management” – First to implement employee work breaks; 4 principles of Scientific management
Taylor’s Time Study
Timed how long it took a first class man to complete each part of his job.
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Developed the idea of motion studies breaking tasks down into separate motions and eliminating unnecessary tasks
Max Weber
German sociologist that developed Bureaucratic Management
Bureaucracy
Exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, experience, or expertise
Henry Fayol
Known for rescuing a failing steel company through administrative ability of managers; came up with 5 functions and 14 principles of management
Fayol’s 14 Principles
Division of work
Authority and responsibility
Discipline
Unity of command
Unity of direction
Subordination of individual interests to the general interests
Remuneration
Centralization
Scalar Chain
Order
Equity
Stability of tenure of personnel
Initiative
Esprit de corps
Division of Work
Fayol’s principle- Increase production by dividing work so that each worker completes smaller tasks or job elements
Authority and Responsibility
Fayol- A manager’s authority, should be commensurate with the manager’s responsibility
Discipline
Fayol- Clearly defined rules and procedures are needed at all organizational levels to ensure order and proper behavior
Unity of Command
Fayol- to avoid confusion and conflict, each employee should report to and receive orders from just one boss
Unity of Direction
Fayol- One person and one plan should be used in deciding the activities to be carried out to accomplish each organizational objective
Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interests
Fayol- Employees must put the organization’s interests and goals before their own
Remuneration
Fayol- Compensation should be fair and satisfactory to both employees and the organization; don’t over or under pay
Centralization
Fayol- Avoid too much centralization or decentralization-find balance
Scalar Chain
Fayol- each position is a part of a vertical chain of authority in which each worker reports to one boss
Order
Fayol- Obtained by having a place for everyone and having everyone in his/her place; no overlapping
Equity
Fayol- Kind, fair, and just treatment for all will develop devotion and loyalty
Stability of Tenure of Personnel
Fayol- Low turnover, meaning a stable workforce with high tenure, benefits an organization by improving performance, lowering costs, and giving employees time to lear their jobs
Initiative
Fayol- managers should encourage the ability to develop and implement a plan
Esprit de Corps
Fayol- Develop a strong sense of morale and unit among workers that encourages coordination of efforts
Nearly all organizations that interact with their environments and depend on them for survival are viewed as ____.
Open systems
Organizations that function without interacting with their environment
Closed Systems
Which of the following statements about information management is true?
The first technologies to truly revolutionize the business use of information were paper and the printing press
A systems view of management allows managers to ____.
Deal with the complex environment in which their companies operate
Which of the following management theorists believed that workers ultimately grant managers their authority?
Chester Barnard
_____ involves managing the daily production of goods and services.
Operations Management
Which of the following management theories uses a quantitative approach to find ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or reduce costly inventories?
Operations Management
Which of the following was demonstrated by the Hawthorne Studies?
Workers were not just extensions of machines
Elton Mayo
Introduced the Hawthorne Studies
Which of the following management theorists provided managers with a better understanding of the effect group social interactions and employee satisfaction have on individual and group performance?
Elton Mayo
With integrative conflict resolution, _____.
Both parties work together to create an alternative solution that includes shared preferences
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ means that each employee should report to and receive orders from just one boss.
Unity of Command
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ requires managers to develop a strong sense of morale and unity among workers that encourages coordination of efforts.
Esprit de Corps
Identify the three ways in which Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal with conflict.
Domination, compromise, integration
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
Controlling
_____ focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work.
Human Relations Management
According to human relations management _____.
Success depends on trading workers well
Which of the following management theorists helped develop human relations management?
Mary Parker Follett
Mary Parker Follett
“Mother of Scientific Management”; Introduced the idea of Integrative Conflict Resolution as an alternative to domination or compromise
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom.
Organizing
According to bureaucratic management, employees should be hired on the basis of _____.
Educational background of an applicant
According to bureaucratic management, _____ should supervise the organization.
Managers
Which of the following does a Henry Gantt chart visually indicate?
The time in which each task should be completed for a project
According to bureaucratic management, which of the following is a criterion on which employees should be promoted?
Experience or achievements
One of the objectives of the motion study conducted by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth was to:
Improve productivity of workers
Prior to the introduction of _____, five workers each given an identical task could use five different methods to perform the task with some methods being significantly more efficient than others.
Scientific Management
Which of the following is the goal of scientific management?
To find the one best way to perform each task
_____ refer to discernible symbols of an organization’s culture, such as the office design and layout, company dress code, and company benefits and perks, like stock options, personal parking spaces, or the private company dining room.
Visible artifacts
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of successful organizational cultures?
Immutability
_____ is defined as a firm’s purpose or reason for existing.
Company Mission
____ is a primary source of organizational culture.
The company’s founder
_____ is defined as searching the industry for important events or issues that might affect an organization.
Environmental Scanning
The term ____ refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture.
Internal Environment
____ is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by members of an organization.
Organizational Culture
_____ refers to the protocols and guidelines that govern the business practices and procedures of specific businesses, and professions.
Industry Regulation
_____ are groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businesses, and professions.
Advocacy Groups
A high degree of buyer or seller dependence can lead to _____.
Opportunistic behavior
Competitive analysis refers to:
Identifying companies that sell similar products
Which of the following helps managers accurately analyze competition?
Refraining from underestimating the potential of competitors
____ is used to refer to a company’s practice of identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur.
Reactive customer monitoring
_____refers to identifying and addressing customer needs, trends, and issues before they occur.
Proactive monitoring
A court ruling regarding the unfair firing of employees is a development in the _____ component of the general environment.
Political/Legal
Many people in Rhenasia are cutting down on their spending. This is because of a lack of well-paying jobs in the country. Many businesses in the country are getting affected as the buying power of customers has drastically reduced. The environmental characteristic that is affecting businesses in Rhenasia is _____.
The economy
Business confidence indices:
Show how sure actual managers are about future business growth
_____ refers to the knowledge, tools, and methods used to transform inputs (raw materials, information, and so on) into outputs (products and services).
Technology
Environmental uncertainty is most likely to be lowest when:
Environmental resource scarcity is low
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Technology trends
Which of the following is true about a company’s specific environment?
It is unique to a particular firm’s industry
Which of the following statements is true about environmental uncertainty?
It is most likely to be high when environmental change is extensive
_____ is the rate at which a company’s general and specific environments alter.
Environmental change
According to the ____, companies go through long, simple periods of environmental stability, followed by short, complex periods of dynamic, fundamental environmental change, finishing with a return to environmental stability.
Punctuated equilibrium theory
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Political trends
A company implementing a(n) ____ strategy would demonstrate the greatest willingness on the part of the company to meet or exceed society’s expectations.
Proactive
A company using a(n) _____ social responsiveness strategy will do less than society expects.
Reactive
A company using a(n) _____ strategy would admit responsibility for a problem but would do the least required to meet societal expectations.
Defensive
_____ pertain to the social roles that businesses play in society beyond their economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities.
Discretionary responsibilities
General Environment consists of:
Sociocultural, Technological, Political/Legal, and Economic trends
Specific Environments consist of:
Competition, Customers, Organizations, Suppliers, Industry regulators, advocacy groups
_____ responsibility means making a profit by producing a product valued by society.
Economic
Secondary stakeholders are important to a company because _____.
They can affect public perceptions and opinions
Under the stakeholder model, ____ would be an example of a stakeholder group that most strongly affects public perceptions and opinions about the company’s socially responsible behavior.
The media
Groups such as shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and local communities are examples of _____ stakeholders.
Primary
A primary stakeholder of an organization would be _____.
Customers
According to the _____ model, the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profits.
Shareholder
Ethical Decision Making Process
Peter Can’t Dance At Church Anymore
Problem
Constituents
Diagnostic
Analysis of Options
Choice
Act
In the context of corporate social responsibility, which of the following statements would Milton Friedman agree to?
The time, money, and attention diverted to social causes undermine market efficiency
Various persons or groups with a legitimate interest in a company’s actions are called _____.
Stakeholders
The two general categories of stakeholders are _____ stakeholders.
Primary and secondary
Which of the following statements best defines social responsibility?
It is a business’ obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society
Which of the following is an important step in establishing an ethical climate in an organization?
The top managers behaving ethically
The last step in the basic model of ethical decision making is to _____.
Act on the situation
All of the following are important factors in the creation of an ethical business climate EXCEPT ____.
Official approval of a company’s ethics code by government regulators
During an ethical decision-making process, which of these questions must be asked in order to identify a problem?
“What are the factors that make this an ethical problem?”
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the _____ make decisions that conform to societal expectations.
Conventional Level
The three stages of moral development identified by Kohlberg are ____.
Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional
People at the _____ of moral development use internalized ethical principles to solve ethical dilemmas.
Postconventional level
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the _____ make decisions that are based on selfish reasons.
Preconventional
Ethical intensity depends on all of the following EXCEPT ____.
Individual Commitment
Which of the following terms describes the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue?
Ethical Intensity
Which of the following statements about ethics is true?
When people believe their work environments ethical, they are 6 times more likely to stay with that company
Production Deviance
Minor/Organizational form of workplace deviance that includes unethical behavior that violates organizational norms about right and wrong
Property Deviance
Serious/Organizational form of workplace deviance that includes the unethical behavior that hurts the quality and quantity or work produced
Political Deviance
Minor/Interpersonal form of workplace deviance that includes using one’s influence to harm others in the company
Personal Aggression
Serious/Interpersonal form of workplace deviance that includes hostile or aggressive behavior toward others

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