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MGMT – Chapter 2

Management is characterized as an art and as a science.
True
Evidence-based management means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice.
True
An attitude of commitment refers to a willingness to set aside belief and conventional wisdom and to act on the facts.
False
Those who believe in evidence-based management would say there are few really new ideas.
True
The “historical perspective” includes systems, contingency and quality management viewpoints.
False
Studying theoretical perspectives can be a source of new ideas.
True
Unfortunately, studying theoretical perspectives does not provide an understanding of the present.
False
The “classical viewpoint” on management includes the quantitative viewpoint.
False
The new “spaghetti organization” is very structured.
False
The classical viewpoint emphasized ways to manage work more effectively.
False
Henri Fayol was a proponent of scientific management.
False
A “therblig” is a unit of noise in the workplace.
False
Motion studies were developed as part of the classical viewpoint.
True
The scientific management viewpoint favored paying all employees the same wage
False
Under a differential rate system, employees are paid on the basis of seniority.
False
Management science is primarily concerned with managing the total organization.
False
The first person to identify the major functions of management was Henri Fayol.
True
One of the problems with the classical viewpoint is that it is too unstructured.
False
Car manufacturers have broken down automobile manufacturing into its constituent tasks. This reflects the contributions of the behavioral school of management.
False
Bureaucracy, as conceptualized by Weber, was the ideal way to structure an organization..
True
It is possible to boost productivity using the classical approach to management.
True
The classical approaches to management tend to view people like cogs in a machine, and tend to ignore human needs.
True
Hugo Munsterberg suggested that psychologists could contribute to the industry by studying jobs and determining which people are best suited to specific jobs.
True
Elton Mayo was a proponent of early behaviorism.
True
The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating employees toward achievement.
True
Mary Parker Follett believed that organizations should become less democratic.
False
The idea that workers become more productive when management pays special attention to them is called the “Hawthorne Effect.”
True
The Hawthorne Studies took place in the 1960s.
False
Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor were theorists in the Human Relations movement.
True
A manager who considers her workers to be irresponsible, lazy, and resistant to change is a Theory X manager.
True
Maslow studied motivation.
True
Behavioral science focuses on effectively managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services.
False
The approach that relies most heavily on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior is the Management Science approach.
False
Research has shown that cooperation is superior to competition in promoting achievement and productivity.
True
The application to management of techniques such as statistics and computer simulations is known as quantitative management.
True
The idea of using mathematical formulas to determine the most profitable price for hotel rooms based on demand comes from management science.
True
Value stream mapping, developed by Toyota, identifies the many steps in a production process and eliminates unnecessary steps.
True
Quality assurance is a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of production.
False
A set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose is called an environment.
False
In a closed system, an organization receives continual feedback from its environment
False
The Apple Newton Messagepad, a PDA that did not succeed, probably failed because it was developed as an open system with inadequate feedback from consumers before launch.
False
A company that practices continuous learning, most likely can be considered an open system.
True
Rather than relying on insiders for brand decisions, teen panels were first used at Levi Strauss and Co. in the late 1990s. This action served to change Levi’s from a closed system to an open one.
True
The contingency viewpoint began to develop when managers discovered that there was one best way to manage organizations.
False
Being “mindful” can be characterized as consciously adapting to what is going on.
True
Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects.”
True
Quality refers to the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs.
True
Deming and Juran were part of the quality-management movement.
True
TQM is initiated by lower level managers and affects top management last.
False
An organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify itself to reflect new knowledge is called a research center.
False
A knowledge worker is someone whose occupation is principally concerned with generating or interpreting information.
True
The virtual organization is an organization whose members are geographically apart.
True
A boundaryless organization is a fluid, highly adaptive organization whose members, linked by information technology, come together to collaborate on common tasks; the collaborators may include competitors, suppliers, and customers.
True
Social capital is the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions.
False
Human capital is the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships.
False
The scientific method consists of
A) trial and error.
B) intuition.
C) observation, theorizing, predicting, and testing.
D) luck.
E) wits and alertness.
C) observation, theorizing, predicting, and testing.
Which of the following is a good reason for studying theoretical perspectives?
A) provides an understanding of the past
B) correctly guides the writing of a mission statement
C) provides clues to the meaning of outside events
D) helps to nullify logic
E) acts as a encyclopedia of solutions
C) provides clues to the meaning of outside events
The classical viewpoint is part of the ________ perspective.
A) behavioral
B) historical
C) administrative
D) quality
E) contingency
B) historical
The contemporary perspective includes which of the following perspectives?
A) behavioral
B) quantitative
C) contingency
D) classical
E) All of the above are part of the contemporary perspective
C) contingency
The viewpoint that emphasizes ways to manage work more efficiently is the ____________ approach.
A) behavioral
B) quantitative
C) TQM
D) classical
E) rational
D) classical
__________ was concerned with managing the total organization and was studied by Fayol and Weber.
A) Administrative management
B) Scientific management
C) Contemporary management
D) Custom management
E) Management science
A) Administrative management
Fredrick Winslow Taylor and the Gilbreths were proponents of which of the following?
A) scientific management and administrative management, respectively
B) scientific management and human relations management, respectively
C) human relations
D) management science
E) scientific management
E) scientific management
One of the 17 basic motions identified by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth is called a
A) Gilbreth.
B) therblig.
C) TQM.
D) work unit.
E) seventeenth.
B) therblig.
The core emphasis of classical management theories is on the belief that
A) money is unlimited.
B) people are irrational.
C) people will take on responsibility if it is offered to them.
D) managers are rational, but workers are not.
E) work can be managed efficiently.
E) work can be managed efficiently.
Frederick W. Taylor is important to management history because he
A) pioneered motion studies.
B) developed therbligs.
C) identified the major functions of management.
D) developed ideas that would later lead to the field of industrial psychology.
E) anticipated the concept of “self-managed teams.”
A) pioneered motion studies.
Which of these viewpoints emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently?
A) behavioral viewpoint
B) quantitative viewpoint
C) management science viewpoint
D) classical viewpoint
E) qualitative viewpoint
D) classical viewpoint
Which of these viewpoints emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement?
A) classical viewpoint
B) behavioral viewpoint
C) quantitative viewpoint
D) management science viewpoint
E) qualitative viewpoint
B) behavioral viewpoint
__________ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more efficiently.
A) Scientific management
B) Behavioral science approach
C) Human relations management
D) Operations management
E) Administrative management
D) Operations management
__________ emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve productivity of individual workers.
A) Scientific management
B) Behavioral science approach
C) Management science
D) Operations management
E) Administrative management
A) Scientific management
Which of these viewpoints focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making?
A) scientific management
B) behavioral science approach
C) management science
D) operations management
E) administrative management
C) management science
Taylor called the tendency for people to deliberately work at less than full capacity
A) loafing.
B) underachieving.
C) underperforming.
D) therbliging.
E) soldiering.
E) soldiering.
The approach that is concerned with managing the total organization is called
A) scientific management.
B) human relations.
C) administrative management.
D) contingency theory.
E) systems approach.
C) administrative management.
Of the following, which is one of the functions of management described by Fayol?
A) coordinating
B) arbitrating
C) collaborating
D) tasking
E) All of the above were part of Fayol’s system.
A) coordinating
Which of the following was a positive feature of bureaucracy, according to Max Weber?
A) managers and workers working side-by-side
B) impersonality
C) loosely-defined hierarchy of authority
D) hiring and promotion based on social status
E) informal rules and procedures
B) impersonality
Which of the following most closely represents the management viewpoint that McDonald’s follows in its stores?
A) classical viewpoint
B) behavioral viewpoint
C) mathematical viewpoint
D) management science viewpoint
E) systems viewpoint
A) classical viewpoint
The most important problem with the classical approach is that it
A) overemphasizes human needs.
B) is too complicated.
C) doesn’t improve productivity.
D) views humans as cogs in a machine.
E) is rational.
D) views humans as cogs in a machine.
Which of the following is one of the phases in the development of the behavioral viewpoint?
A) human resource management
B) human relations
C) operations management
D) administrative theory
E) operations research
B) human relations
The person who is called “the father of industrial psychology” was
A) Mark Parker Follett.
B) Max Weber.
C) Elton Mayo.
D) Hugo Munsterberg.
E) Frederick Taylor.
D) Hugo Munsterberg.
The idea that organizations should be managed as communities with managers and subordinates working together in harmony was developed by
A) Frederick Taylor.
B) the Gilbreths.
C) Max Weber.
D) Henry Fayol.
E) Mary Parker Follet.
E) Mary Parker Follet.
Among the recommendations of Mary Parker Follett was
A) integration should occur in organizations when conflicts arose.
B) managers and workers should work competitively.
C) managers should be order-givers, and employees should be order-takers.
D) motion studies should be made of every job.
E) supervisors should control the work process completely.
A) integration should occur in organizations when conflicts arose.
The idea that management should pay more attention to employees came out of
A) Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management.
B) Fayol’s Administrative Management.
C) the Hawthorne studies.
D) operations research.
E) Theory Y.
C) the Hawthorne studies.
The theory of the hierarchy of human needs was developed by
A) Maslow.
B) Mayo.
C) McGregor.
D) Taylor.
E) Fayol.
A) Maslow.
When Carlos noticed that he was hungry, he stopped working, got up, fixed himself a sandwich, and ate it in the company of his wife, who happened to be in the kitchen at the time. According to Maslow, the motivation for Carlos’s behavior arose from which one of the following needs?
A) physiological
B) psychological
C) security
D) social
E) self-fulfillment
A) physiological
The idea that workers are capable of accepting responsibility and working in a self-directed manner is representative of
A) Theory X.
B) Theory Y.
C) Theory Z.
D) hierarchy of needs.
E) self-fulfilling prophecy.
B) Theory Y.
The idea that if a manager expects a subordinate to act in a certain way, the worker may, in fact, very well act that way, thereby confirming the manager’s expectations, is called
A) self-esteem.
B) self-fulfillment.
C) self-fulfilling prophecy.
D) the hierarchy of needs.
E) the Hawthorne effect.
C) self-fulfilling prophecy.
Behavioral science relies on __________ for developing theories about human behavior that can help managers.
A) intuition
B) scientific research
C) simulations
D) anecdotes
E) trial and error
B) scientific research
Which of the following is a discipline that is part of behavioral science?
A) psychology
B) biology
C) computer science
D) chemistry
E) engineering
A) psychology
__________ is a category of historical management perspectives requiring the application to management of techniques such as statistics and computer simulations.
A) The classical viewpoint
B) The behavioral viewpoint
C) The managerial viewpoint
D) The qualitative viewpoint
E) The quantitative viewpoint
E) The quantitative viewpoint
__________ focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making.
A) Scientific management
B) Behavioral science
C) Management science
D) TQM
E) Administrative management
C) Management science
Operations research techniques have evolved into
A) scientific management.
B) behavioral science.
C) quantitative methods.
D) TQM.
E) administrative management.
C) quantitative methods.
To decide how many package sorters to schedule and at which times UPS and FedEx probably use the tools of
A) scientific management.
B) management science.
C) selective management.
D) the Hawthorne tools.
E) TQM.
B) management science.
________ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively.
A) Operations management
B) Operations research
C) Management science
D) Scientific management
E) Administrative management
A) Operations management
Raj is the nurse in charge of managing the supplies and other inventory for his wing of the hospital. He uses a(n) _________ program to be sure that the hospital can rely on always having the correct supplies and level of inventory on hand. This allows the hospital to be both efficient and effective.
A) operations research
B) contingency
C) quality management
D) operations management
E) qualitative
D) operations management
The __________ viewpoint sees organizations as entities with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback.
A) contingency
B) quality management
C) operations management
D) systems
E) open loop
D) systems
The ________ viewpoint emphasizes that a manager’s actions should vary according to the situation.
A) contingency
B) quality management
C) operations management
D) systems
E) open loop
A) contingency
__________ focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”.
A) Quantity control
B) Behavioral control
C) Scientific management
D) Systems control
E) Quality assurance
E) Quality assurance
Which viewpoint focuses on minimizing errors and defects by managing each state of production?
A) contingency
B) quality management
C) systems
D) operations management
E) lean production
B) quality management
A(n) __________ is a set of interrelated parts operating together to achieve a common purpose.
A) environment
B) contingency
C) system
D) TQM
E) therblig
C) system
A(n) ______________ continually interacts with its environment.
A) closed system
B) open system
C) neutral system
D) porous system
E) subsystem
B) open system
A(n) ______________ has little interaction with its environment.
A) closed system
B) open system
C) neutral system
D) porous system
E) subsystem
A) closed system
The Colgate toothpaste that Colgate-Palmolive manufactures is an example of a(n) __________ of its manufacturing system.
A) input
B) transformational process
C) output
D) feedback loop
E) byproduct
C) output
The plant manager who oversees the manufacture of Cheerios cereal is part of the __________ of the manufacturing system.
A) inputs
B) transformation processes
C) outputs
D) feedback
E) organizational processes
B) transformation processes
“Mindlessness” is characterized by which of the following attributes?
A) acting from multiple perspectives
B) automatic behavior
C) engaging in new categories
D) active engagement
E) considering new ideas
B) automatic behavior
Which of the following approaches is the best example of a manager using the contingency viewpoint?
A) simplifying the steps of the work process
B) using motivational techniques to boost worker productivity
C) assessing the particular situation and deciding what to do
D) performing a motion study
E) purchasing new technology to improve efficiency
C) assessing the particular situation and deciding what to do
The strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production is called
A) zero defects.
B) quality control.
C) TQM.
D) six sigma.
E) lean manufacturing.
B) quality control.
__________ focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”.
A) Quality control
B) Quality assurance
C) Total quality management
D) Continuous improvement
E) Reengineering
B) Quality assurance
Deming believed that quality stems from
A) steady focus on the organization’s mission.
B) the Hawthorne effect.
C) a self-fulfilling prophecy.
D) Theory X management.
E) operations research.
A) steady focus on the organization’s mission.
Deming proposed that when something goes wrong, chances are __________ that the system is at fault, and __________ that the individual worker is at fault.
A) 15%, 85%
B) 35%, 65%
C) 50%, 50%
D) 65%, 35%
E) 85%, 15%
E) 85%, 15%
The comprehensive approach to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction is known as
A) quality assurance.
B) quality control.
C) total quality management.
D) reengineering.
E) operations management.
C) total quality management.
TQM is led by
A) top managers.
B) middle managers.
C) lower-level managers.
D) general managers.
E) functional managers.
A) top managers.
Organizations that actively create, acquire, and transfer knowledge within themselves and are able to modify their behavior to reflect this new knowledge are called __________ organizations.
A) TQM
B) learning
C) Theory X
D) Theory Y
E) teaching
B) learning
The term “learning organization” was coined by
A) Deming.
B) Juran.
C) Maslow.
D) Senge.
E) Mayo.
D) Senge.
Alvin, a manager for ABC, Inc., subscribes to a large number of business and trade journals. He shares information he thinks is relevant with others at ABC. Alvin is behaving as if he is in a __________ organization.
A) Theory X
B) Theory Y
C) bureaucratic
D) learning
E) teaching
D) learning
Marilyn works for a small, private, mid-western university as a budget manager. She has just been to a leadership conference where she learned new tools that she thinks will benefit her staff. On the plane home Marilyn began planning how she would encourage employees to use this new knowledge to modify their behavior to help her department reach its goals. Based on this information, which of the following is the best description of the type of organization for which Marilyn works?
A) a bureaucratic organization
B) an organization that believes in Theory X
C) an organization that practices Theory Z
D) a purposeful organization
E) a learning organization
E) a learning organization
Scott works for an organization that describes itself as a “learning organization.” As a manager, which of the following actions is Scott most likely to take while working for this organization?
A) When Scott needs a new member of his staff, he deliberately looks for someone with new talent and expertise.
B) Scott likes to promote from within because those folks know how “it has always been done.”
C) Scott puts all of his time into running his part of the organization, so he never gets around to reading the trade journals that are piling up on his desk.
D) Scott thinks of knowledge as power and uses it to obtain resources for himself and his department.
E) Thankfully, Scott believes, his employees don’t need training and development since they are already familiar with the ropes. He realizes this would be a large cost to the organization.
A) When Scott needs a new member of his staff, he deliberately looks for someone with new talent and expertise.
Which of these is defined as an organization whose members are geographically apart, usually working with e-mails, collaborative computing, and other computer connections?
A) technological organization
B) global organization
C) virtual organization
D) boundaryless organization
E) telecom organization
C) virtual organization
A __________ is defined as a fluid, highly adaptive organization whose members, linked by information technology, come together to collaborate on common tasks.
A) technological organization
B) wireless organization
C) virtual organization
D) boundaryless organization
E) communication organization
D) boundaryless organization
A(n) __________ worker is someone whose occupation is principally concerned with generating or interpreting information.
A) knowledge
B) information
C) data
D) research
E) facts-based
A) knowledge
__________ capital is the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships.
A) Human
B) Social
C) Labor
D) Physical
E) Financial
B) Social
__________ is the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge, experience, and actions.
A) Human capital
B) Social capital
C) Financial capital
D) Economic capital
E) Knowledge capital
A) Human capital
To create a learning organization, managers must perform three key functions or roles: build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and
A) work to create chaos to generate new ideas.
B) heighten conflict to implement new ideas.
C) work to generalize ideas with impact.
D) minimize self-stress to project a positive image.
E) be nice to employees.
C) work to generalize ideas with impact.
Maria recently read a trade article about creating a learning organization. She thought it was exactly the type of organization she wanted to lead. As CEO of ABC Company she then held a meeting with her direct reports and most likely asked them to do which one of the following things that would best help her in creating the learning organization she aspired to lead?
A) create chaos to support new-idea generation
B) encourage heated debates on every proposed idea
C) encourage staff not to invest in ABC company so that “all of their eggs are not in one basket.”
D) restrict training to save expenses and improve the balance sheet
E) create a psychologically safe environment
E) create a psychologically safe environment

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