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MGMT Exam 2

innovation streams
Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called:
The __________ approach to managing innovation assumes that innovation is a predictable process made up of a series of steps and that compressing the time it takes to complete those steps can speed up innovation
The first stage of organizational decline is:
Which of the following is one of the three steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin?
not establishing a great enough sense of urgency
According to John Kotter’s analysis of the errors managers make when leading change, the first and potentially most serious of these errors is:
Organizational ____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations.
organizational innovation
Creativity was needed to improve efficiency without raising costs at one automobile maker. Over the last few years, the company has successfully implemented a creative engineering program that allows its plants to produce more than one type of car from the same assembly line. This successful change to a flexible manufacturing system is an example of ____.
technological discontinuity
The development of the DVD player was a source of ____ to companies in the movie industry just as VHS tapes had once been.
A technology ____ begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology.
Nearly all technology cycles follow the typical ____ pattern of innovation.
at both the beginning and end of the cycle
In the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e., money, research and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance ____,
at the end of the innovation cycle
When significant improvements in performance can ONLY be gained through radical new designs or new performance-enhancing materials, it is likely that a company is ____ in the S-curve pattern of innovation.
knowledge, tools, and techniques
A technology cycle occurs whenever there are major advances or changes in the ____ in a field or discipline.
Discontinuous change
____ is the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition.
technological substitution
The purchase of new technologies to replace older ones is an example of ___.
technological substitution
Discontinuous change in an innovation stream is characterized by ____.
technological discontinuity, discontinuous change, dominant design, and incremental change
In order from beginning to end, the phases of a technology cycle within an innovation stream consist of ____.
Creative work environments
____ are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged.
is a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions
Organizational development ____.
All of these were cited as advantages of the results-driven change approach.
Which of the following statements describes an advantage of the results-driven change approach to managing change?
change agent
A(n) ____ is the individual who is formally in charge of guiding a change effort.
Which of the following methods for managing resistance to change should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions?
Resistance to change will always occur; it is inevitable.
Which of the following statements about resistance to change is true?
change forces; resistance forces
According to social psychologist Kurt Lewin, ____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while ____ support the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization.
It is appropriate to use a(n) ____ approach to manage innovation in more certain environments during periods of incremental change, in which the goals are lower costs and incremental improvements in the performance and function of the existing technological design.
generational change
When incremental improvements are made to a dominant technological design such that the improved version of the technology is fully backward compatible with the older version, ____ is said to have occurred.
the granting of autonomy
the development of challenging work
organizational encouragement
the removal of organizational impediments
Which of the following is a component of a creative work environment that encourages creativity?
tariff barriers and nontariff barriers
The two general kinds of trade barriers are:
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The trade agreement that represented the most significant change to the regulations governing global trade during the 1990s was the:
exporting; cooperative contracts; strategic alliances; wholly owned affiliates
Which of the following represents the correct sequence for the phase model of globalization?
purchasing power
Two factors help determine the growth potential of foreign markets. They are foreign competition and:
five consistent dimensions of cultural differences across countries
Hofstede’s research has shown there are:
lives and works outside of his or her own country
An expatriate is someone who:
how well an expatriate’s spouse and family adjust to the foreign culture
The evidence clearly shows that __________ is the most important factor in determining the success or failure of an international assignment.
the buying and selling of goods and services to people from different countries
Global business is defined as____.
Direct foreign investment
____ is a method of investment in which a company builds a new business or buys an existing business in a foreign country.
In 2000, the United States imposed a tax on all steel imports in an effort to protect about 5,000 jobs. This tax is an example of a(n) ____.
____ are long-term, low-interest loans, cash grants, and tax deductions used to develop and protect companies or special industries.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The acronym GATT stands for the ____.
To what extent should the company standardize or adapt business procedures?
One of the major questions that a company must typically answer about its future, once it has decided to go global is ____.
phase model of globalization
Historically, most companies have used the ____ to successfully enter foreign markets.
Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics is a medium-sized U.S. company that sells 1.5 million tubes of its lipstick annually in Japan. It has no physical presence within the country beyond the fact its products are sold there. Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics uses ____ to reach the Japanese market.
____ occurs when a company sells domestically produced products to customers in foreign countries.
cooperative contract
A(n) ____ is an agreement in which a foreign business owner pays a company a fee for the right to conduct that business in his or her country.
Franchising and licensing
____ are both examples of cooperative contracts.
low degree of uncertainty avoidance
In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, the people who are described as happy-go-lucky and are people who are comfortable with an unstructured life and deal well with sudden changes. In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, these people have a ____.
political uncertainty
Starbucks is expanding its global operations into South America in spite of the real probability of civil wars and terrorist activities in many of the continent’s nations. As Starbucks expands into South America, it must deal with ____.
none of these
All global new ventures share two common factors. One is the bringing of a good or service to several different foreign markets at the same time. The other is ____.
having a short-term orientation
According to Hofstede, when people in a culture are oriented to the present and seek immediate gratification, that culture is described as ____.
The ____ strategy of minimizing or adapting to the political risk inherent to global business makes use of joint ventures and collaborative contracts.
National culture
____ is the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of people from a particular country.
political uncertainty and policy uncertainty
What are the two types of political risk that affect companies conducting global business?
an effective but cost-efficient place to build an office or manufacturing site
A country or region that has an attractive business climate for companies that want to go global has ____.
chain of command
Organizational authority is traditionally characterized by:
A(n) __________ function is an activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company’s products.
Job enrichment
__________ means increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the power to make decisions about their own work.
A(n) __________ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities, precisely defined, unchanging roles, and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.
__________ is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.
modular organizations
Except for the core business activities that they can perform better, faster, and cheaper than others, __________ outsource all remaining business activities to outside companies, suppliers, specialists, or consultants.
is the collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value
The organizational process ____.
organizational structure; organizational process
While ____ emphasizes jobs and their authority relationships, ____ emphasizes the activities through which work gets done in the organization.
____ departmentalization is defined as organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise.
____ is a general term that refers to subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units that are responsible for completing particular tasks.
Functional departmentalization allows work to be done by highly qualified specialists.
Which of the following statements about functional departmentalization is true?
Hallmark has four departments. These departments are (1) Flowers and Gifts, (2) Cards and E-cards, (3) Hallmark Collectibles, and (4) Photo Albums and Scrapbooks. Hallmark uses ____ departmentalization.
With divisions that focus on business clients and consumer clients, companies like Sprint, American Express, and others are examples of ____ departmentalization.
Procter & Gamble has divisions for personal and beauty, house and home, health and wellness, baby and family, and pet nutrition and care. These divisions indicate that the company uses ____ departmentalization.
With ____ departmentalization, most employees report to two bosses.
line; staff
In terms of the chain of command, ____ authority is the right to command immediate subordinates, while ____ authority is the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates.
is described by none of these
The chain of command ____.
Delegation of authority
____ involves assigning direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.
When managers delegate work, three transfers occur. The three transfers are responsibility, authority, and ____.
____ is the process of solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes.
leads to faster decision making and more satisfied customers and employees
Decentralization ____.
employee boredom
Job specialization can result in ____.
Job design
____ determines the number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in their jobs.
job enlargement
An organization that has increased the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular job has engaged in ____.
internal motivation
The central concern of the job characteristics model (JCM) is ____.
Task significance
____ is the degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization.
A(n) ____ organization is one that is characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities; loosely defined, frequently changing roles; and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge.
A(n) ____ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles; and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.
reciprocal, pooled, and sequential
The three types of task interdependence are

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