If you are nervous in a job interview, it is best that you admit it
Poor communication between staff and managers has a financial cost to organizations
Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another
You are an efficient communicator when your intended message is accurately understood by the other person.
Encoding is defined as an attempt to disguise a message so that only the desired recipient can interpret it
Bret had many spelling and grammar mistakes in his report, some of which made the content difficult to understand. This is an example of poor decoding
The pathway by which a message travels is called the medium
Eli shut his eyes and dropped his head into his hands when his boss announced the holiday schedule. This is an example of feedback
Noise is defined as any physical sound that interferes with accurate communication between two people
The sun was right in Sienna’s eyes, so she looked away and missed the coach’s demonstration of a defensive technique. In this case, the sun acts as noise in the communication process
Noise can affect written and spoken messages, and even nonverbal ones
The communication process begins with the transmission of a message through a medium
Media richness indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning
Face-to-face communication is the leanest form of communication
A rich medium of communication is best for nonroutine situations and to avoid oversimplification
If you must tell your subordinate that he is facing a sexual harassment investigation, you should use a lean medium of communication
The danger of using a lean medium for nonroutine matters is overloading; the medium typically provides more information than is necessary
A telephone call is a richer medium than a personal letter
A speaker that isn’t working properly at a fast-food drive-through is an example of a communication barrier
Neha did not receive an important e-mail from a client because, unbeknownst to her, her company’s e-mail server was down. This is an example of a receiver barrier
Time-zone differences can be a physical barrier to communication
When a supervisor tells you, “We need to get this done right away,” the supervisor has created a semantic barrier to the communication process
The study of the meaning of words is called semantics
Jargon is the use of foreign language terms to represent concepts in American business
Jargon is an example of a physical barrier to communication
Trust between parties is an important element in preventing communication problems
One’s ego can affect how receptive that person is to being influenced by others
Effective communication begins with challenging, at least mentally, what you have heard
A stereotype consists of harmful beliefs that suppress minority groups of people
Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent using written rather than spoken media
Eye contact signals the beginning of conversation; people typically tend to look at others when beginning to speak
A smile does not convey the same emotions in different countries
Folding one’s arms can be interpreted as defensiveness
According to research, touching is typically detrimental to teamwork
One of the ways to improve communication is to show animation
Women are slightly more likely than men to negotiate their starting pay
Among gender difference in communication is the idea that men are more likely than women to ask questions
According to Deborah Tannen, women are more tactful than men when it comes to giving feedback.
More often than not, a male executive who wants the advice of an executive coach will turn to a woman
Vertical communication refers solely to the flow of messages down the hierarchy, or in other words, bosses communicating with subordinates
When a subordinate recommends to her manager that their department get additional help for the inventory process, it is considered vertical communication
The main purpose of horizontal communication is coordination between and within work units
Vertical communication is impeded by rivalry between work units
Management by wandering around is an example of a formal communication channel
The grapevine is faster than formal channels of communication
Management by wandering around helps reduce the distortion that occurs with formal communication flowing up a hierarchy
Foregoing the use of an agenda for a work meeting makes it harder for participants to add excessive items and thus helps streamline the meeting
Multicommunicating represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time
Texting and checking one’s e-mail during group meetings has become commonplace and accepted in the workplace
Compensation is the most important factor for Millennials in choosing employment
Research finds that reducing an organization’s travel budget also reduces its revenue and profitability
High-definition videoconference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users are known as virtual conference technology
Telecommuting is more common for jobs that involve brain work requiring concentration and limited interruptions
Telework is a broad term than encompasses not just working from home but working from anywhere
A system of safeguards for protecting information technology from threats is known as cyber-defense.
The right of people not to reveal information about themselves is known as privacy
Among users of social networks, the older the user, the more likely that person carefully monitors the content of the profile and who has access to it
The average worker receives 200 e-mails a day
The greater the use of e-mail within an organization, the more connected coworkers feel
Most people would rather give up their TVs or the Internet than their mobile phones
Today, problems with smartphones are mere annoyances
Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network are collectively known as social media
Diminished ethics by businesspeople is one of the drawbacks commonly associated with the use of social media
People comprehend less than half of a typical verbal message
The main purpose of those with an evaluative listening style is to try to determine the speaker’s main message and important points
To be a better listener, you should not distract the speaker with questions
By and large, speed reading isn’t effective because it does not work well for difficult or unfamiliar material
Advice to help streamline your reading includes asking subordinates to screen, scan, or summarize it for you
Top-down reading requires managers to summarize important information in reading and to share it with subordinates
When your reader is attached to a solution other than the one you propose, your writing should order points from most controversial to least
One study found that the top predictor of success and upward mobility is how much a person enjoys public speaking and how effective the person is at it
An audience is unlikely to remember more than a few points from a speech
If you have little experience, the top selling points about yourself in a job interview should be
your personal qualities.
the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.
When your intended message is sent accurately in the least amount of time, you are a(n)
Which of the following is not an element of the communication model?
The process of translating a message into understandable symbols or language is called
When the band came out on stage and the lead singer shouted, “Hello, San Antonio!” the crowd roared with applause. The crowd’s response is an example of
Which of the following is not an example of noise in the communication process in a typical classroom?
A student responding to a professor’s request for questions.
Which of the following is a step in the communication process?
The message is transmitted through a medium.
A(n) ______ form of media allows receivers to observe multiple cues, such as body language and tone of voice, and allows senders to get feedback.
Which of the following is the most appropriate media for a manager advising employees of a revision to the company’s bonus structure?
Of the following, which medium is the richest?
Of the following, which medium is the least rich?
Flier on a bulletin board.
A manager wants to tell employees that the quarterly project management training will start on April 12, about two months from now. Generally, which of the following should the manager use?
Executives at Davidson Engineering want to let middle managers know that the company is going to be acquired by its largest competitor. Assuming any of the following are possible, how should executives communicate this?
Call a meeting of managers.
Claire wanted to tell her employee about the seminar, but she put the flier in a stack of papers and forgot about it until after the deadline to sign up. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?
Yue worked on a global team for an American company, and all her work had to be completed in her second language, English. Sometimes her teammates misinterpreted her meaning. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.
Rodrigo was in meetings all day and didn’t get a chance to check his e-mail before he had to pick up his children from daycare, so he missed an important message from a client. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?
Sunjata works part time in a coffee shop. Some of the equipment is so noisy it prevents him from correctly hearing the customer orders. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.
Tricia, working at a research facility in North Carolina, needs to communicate with Romain, who is in Grenoble, France, about a project they are working on. Romain has perfect command of English, but they are still facing a(n) ______ barrier to communication.
The study of the meaning of words is called
______ is likely to cause a semantic barrier to communication.
Which of the following is not a personal barrier to communication?
Kelly was recently promoted to manager. Though he used to take advice from his peers, he seems no longer willing to listen to even his superiors and is really running the project how he thinks best. This is an example of which personal barrier to communication?
The statement, “Single old ladies are cat people,” reflects a(n)
Which of the following is not a way in which nonverbal communication is expressed?
Writing a thank-you note.
Most people tend to ______ when conveying bad news or negative feedback.
avoid eye contact
Which of the following is a “don’t” when attempting to improve communication?
Close your eyes.
Which of the following is a “do” when attempting to improve communication?
Compared to women, men tend to
be indirect when admitting fault.
According to Deborah Tannen, men are more likely than women to
boast about achievements.
Ginger, a marketing manager, uses a sports car metaphor to explain a concept to her male counterpart in accounting. She is said to be
A person’s characteristic speaking patterns, such as the use of pacing, pausing, questions, and stories, is known as a
Channels of communications that follow the chain of command and are considered as official are termed
Which of the following indicates how official communications should be routed?
A manager who is directing her subordinate about work tasks is communicating
The more management levels through which a message passes
the more distorted the message may become.
The dean at Corbin Business College disseminated a new five-year strategic plan to department chairs. This is an example of
Xiangcong, a marketing manager, shares some of the market research her department has analyzed with the research and development group. Xiangcong is communicating
Shortly after the end of the fiscal year, Stavanger Investments released an earnings report to clients. This is an example of communicating
______ communication channels develop outside the organizational structure and do not follow the chain of command.
Gossip and rumor in an organization are part of the _____, which itself is a type of ______ communication channel.
The grapevine is
used by employees when threatened or insecure.
A manager who literally wanders around her organization and talks with people across all lines of authority is doing
Which of the following is not a norm of the Millennial generation?
Desire to accept facts and authority at face value.
Using video and audio links along with computers to allow people at different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other is called
______ can be quite expensive, requiring a specially designed room with multiple cameras and high-definition video screens.
Which of the following is characteristic of telecommuting?
Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.
The key to protecting digital communication systems against fraud, hackers, identity theft, and other threats is
using prevention techniques like strong passwords.
When thieves use your name and good credit rating to get cash or buy things, it is known as
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of e-mail?
Considered rude to use in crowded places.
Which of the following is appropriate for workplace e-mail?
Trimming the sender’s e-mail when replying.
The source for crowdsourcing is most often
the online community.
Generally, people comprehend about ______ of a typical verbal message.
The average speaker communicates about ______ as many words as the average listener can process.
What do good listeners do during the information gap between what someone says and how fast we process?
Mentally summarize what’s been said.
The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages, which requires full attention and processing, is known as active
A(n) ________ listener tries to determine the rationale of the speaker’s argument, preferring logical presentations without interruptions, focusing on relationships among ideas, and waiting until all information is available before expressing opinions.
Which of the following is not a suggestion that may help you be a good listener?
Memorize the details.
Speed reading works well for material that is
Top-down reading strategies include which of the following?
Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer.
When you want your reader to take a logical and fairly nonpolitical action, you should order ideas in your writing from
most important to least important.
If you want your writing to establish a common ground with the reader and make your overall argument stronger, you should order your arguments from
negative to positive.
Galen wants to change the CEO’s mind about seeking an outside firm to which they could outsource the customer service phone center. He decides to write a proposal, including a variety of arguments to support of his idea. Here, Galen should order his ideas from
least controversial to most controversial.
Which of the following is a tip for writing more effectively for business purposes?
Start by telling what you expect of the reader.
A study conducted by AT&T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was
public speaking ability.
The introduction to a business speech should
get right to the point.
Which of the following is not appropriate to include in the conclusion of a speech?
Details you forgot from earlier.
Describe the elements of the communication process. Illustrate it with a simple example
The sender is the person wanting to share information called a message, and the receiver is the person for whom the message is intended. Encoding is translating a message into understandable symbols or language. Decoding is interpreting and trying to make sense of the message. Feedback occurs when the receiver expresses his or her reaction to the sender’s message. The entire communication process can be disrupted at several different points by what is called noise, which is any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message.
The student should provide an example of the process including each element (see Figure 15.1).
Define the concept of media richness. Which forms of media are more rich and which are less? Explain why this is so, and provide example situations in which the two ends of the spectrum are most appropriate.
Media richness is how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning. More rich media (such as face-to-face conversations) are richer in that they convey both verbal and visual information (multiple cues), and feedback is provided to the sender. Less rich media (such as newsletters) are poorer in that they lack multiple channels, and create no opportunity for feedback. Richer media are appropriate for nonroutine, ambiguous situations, and less rich media are more appropriate for routine, clear situations.
The student should then give an example of the use of the both high and low levels of media richness.
Identify and explain the three types of barriers to communication. Give examples of each from your own life, and describe how those barriers could have been removed
The three types are physical, semantic, and personal. Physical barriers include sound, time, and space. Semantic barriers include unclear use of words and jargon. Personal barriers include variations in communication skills, trustworthiness and credibility, stereotypes and prejudices, and faulty listening skills.
The student should then give an example of each type from his or her life and explain how these may have been removed.
What is formal communication in organizations? Describe the various types and provide an example of how each might be used in the workplace
Formal communication follows the chain of command and includes official communications. It can be:
Vertical (upward or downward), where bosses communicate with subordinates and vice versa
Horizontal, meaning laterally (sideways), where communication flows within and between work units and whose main purpose is coordination, or
External, meaning communication flowing between people inside and outside the organization, such as to customers, shareholders, etc.
The student should then give an example of each type.
What are informal communication channels? Explain two types of informal channels and the aspects of each that are useful for managers to understand
Informal communications channels are those that develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command. The two types are the grapevine and MBWA.
The grapevine is the unofficial communication system of the informal organization, a network of gossip and rumor of what is called “employee language.” Managers should be aware that this is the major way that many employees acquire their information, and that it can be a morale reducer.
MBWA (Management by Wandering Around) is where a manager literally wanders around his or her organization and talks with people across lines of authority. It gives the manager access to less distorted information about what is going on at lower levels, allows managers to learn more about their people, and to express to employees the values and goals that are important.
Define the concept of security in the digital age. Name at least three specific measures that one could take to prevent security breaches on the Internet
Security is a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss. Security is a continuing challenge, with computer and cell-phone users constantly having to deal with threats ranging from malicious software (malware) that tries to trick people into yielding passwords, Social Security numbers, and financial information to deviant programs (viruses) that can destroy or corrupt data.
Prevention tips include: pick strong passwords, using a mix of letters, symbols, and numbers, use different passwords for different Web services, don’t reveal sensitive information, not even in “private” areas of services such as Facebook, don’t share files on services that offer optional sharing, such as Google Docs, keep data whose disclosure would create legal liability or embarrassment on your personal hard drives and storage devices, avoid file-sharing services such as Lime Wire that distribute pirated files, and apply the latest security updates to all your software, including operating systems, browsers, and antivirus programs
Provide at least three suggestions to help a person become a good listener. Give an example from your own experience of times when either you or your listener violated these suggestions
To become a good listener, don’t think about what you’re going to say until the other person has finished talking. Judge content, not delivery. Don’t tune out someone because of his or her accent, clothing, mannerisms, personality, or speaking style.
Ask questions, and summarize remarks. Ask questions to make sure you understand. Recap what the speaker said.
Listen for ideas. Don’t get diverted by the details; concentrate on the main ideas.
Resist distractions and show interest. Don’t get distracted by things other people are doing, paperwork on your desk, things happening outside the window, television or radio, and the like. Show the speaker you’re listening, periodically restating in your own words what you’ve heard.
Give a fair hearing. Don’t shut out unfavorable information when you hear a term that suggests ideas you’re not comfortable with. Try to correct for your biases.
The student should then give examples from his or her own experience
Describe the five steps of the top-down reading method
The top-down system has five steps:
Rate reasons to read. Rate your reasons for reading (“Why should I read this? Will reading it contribute to my goals?”).
Question and predict answers. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer. This gives you reasons for reading—to get answers to your questions.
Survey the big picture. Survey the material to be read so you can get a sense of the whole. Take a few minutes to get an overview so you can read with purpose.
Skim for main ideas. Skimming the material is similar to surveying, except it’s on a smaller scale. You look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph.
Summarize. Summarize as you skim. Verbally restate or write notes of the main points, using your own words. Visualize or sketch the main points. Answer your initial questions as you skim the material.
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