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Midterm Review. Civil War & Reconstruction

What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1850?
California would be admitted as a free state.Utah and New Mexicao would decide the slavery issue for themselves{popular sovereignty}.Congress would ban the buying and selling of slaves in Washington,D.C. and would pass a stronger fugitive slave law
How did the Underground Railroad influence the South’s demand for a stricter fugitive slave law?
As more and more slaves were aided with escaping to the North . So the Fugitive slave Act was passed to hopefully deter them.
How did the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act promote compromise and attempt to prevent the Civil War?
The Compromise of 1850 meant that in the state of California people had the right to vote for or against slavery. Called Popular Sovereignty.The Kansas-Nebraska Act was much the same. They were hoping appease both sides and prevent civil war.
Explain how the Kansas-Nebraska Act didn’t resolve the conflict over slavery.
Fighting soon ensued, Kansas
What was the Dred Scott decision and what was its effect?
The Supreme court ruled that African Americans were not and could never be citizens. Thus Dred Scott had no right even to file a lawsuit and remained a slave. The effects were that slavery was legally expanded, and tensions lead to the civil war. The slavery dbate was intensified.
what were the causes of the Civil War?
Conflicts over slavery between North and South, Secession, and the election of Abraham Lincoln.
What was the Anaconda Plan and how did this help the Union win?
The plan was to surround the Souther States blocking imports and exports. Split the confederacy in two and capture the confederate capitol of richmond virginia
How did President Davis and Lincoln deal with political opposition to the war?
Because both sides held sympathizers for and against slavery both Lincoln and Davis suspended the writ of Habeus Corpus, which prevents the government from holding citizens without formally charging them with crimes.
What were the reasons for President Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation?
To end slavery and weaken the confederacy. It became a weapon of war.
What effect did the Emancipation have on the North and South?
The South lost their workforce so became weaker, the North became stronger as about 10% of their army were African american.
Explain the roles of Grant, Lee and Sherman in the civil War.
Grant, was the commander of all Union armies. William Tecumseh Sherman was the commander of the military division of the Mississippi who also fought for the Union. Lee was the confederate General.
How did the Battle of Vicksburg affect the Confederacy?
The confederates lost the battle and were cut in two. The defeat cost the south much of its limited manpower.
What was the Gettysburg Address and why did President Lincoln give it after the battle of Vicksburg?
The Gettysburg address was a speech by Lincoln at the ceremony that was held to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg. Lincoln gave the speech to both honor those that died and he wanted the country to come together as a unified nation and not a collection of states.
what were the economic, social and political effects of the Civil War?
Economically the civil war widened the gap between North and South. During the war, the economy of the Northern states boomed. The Southern economy was devastated. It marked the end of slavery as a labor system and wreaked most of the regions industry and farmland.
It increased the federal governments power and authority, during the war the federal government passed laws that gave it a lot of control over individual citizens.
Many lives were lost.
How did the presidential plan and the Congressional (Radical Republican) plan differ on Reconstruction
. The presidential plan was more lenient, In 1863 Lincoln announced his proclamation of Amnesty also known as the 10% plan. Under this plan the government would pardon all Confederates except high-ranking officials and those accused of crimes against prisoners of ward who would swear allegiance to the Union. Under Lincoln’s terms, four states-Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia moved toward readmission to the Union. The Radical Republicans felt differently, they wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders and wanted African Americans to be give full citizenship and the right to vote.
What were the Black Codes and how did Congress attempt to eliminate them?
Restrictive laws that were designed to restrict freed black and ensure their availability as a labor force.
What were the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?
The 13th abolished slavery
The 14th granted the slaves citizenship
The 15th provided free slaves the right to vote.
How did former slaves improve their lives (Social, and Political) during Reconstruction?
By attending colleges & schools to be educated. by taking an active role in politics & serving in both local and state offices.
Describe the Scalawags and the carpetbaggers.
Scalawags were white Southerners who joined the Republican Party who saw more of an advantage in backing the policies of Reconstruction than in opposing them. . Many were small farmers who wanted to improve their economic position and did not want the former wealthy planters to regain power. Carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South after the war, they were seen as opportunists looking to exploit and profit from the region’s misfortunes by many in the South.. The negative name came from the misconception that they arrived with so few belongings that they carried everything in small traveling bags made of carpeting.
How was the Republican Party affected by the Civil War?
They grew stronger they won the war. But after there was no unity.
Explain how the Southern Redeemers (Southern Democrats) attempt to abolish the rights granted to African Americans in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?
A political deal was made in which the congress agreed to accept Hayes if federal troops were withdrawn fro the South. After republican leaders agreed to the demands, Hayes was elected and reconstruction ended in the South.
What role did the White League and the KKK play in post Civil War?
They used scare tactics including murder. The KKK and other groups killed over 20,000 men women and children. Some white Southerners refused to hire or do business with African Americans who voted Republican. They used violence to intimidate African Americans after the civil war.
What was the grandfather clause, literacy tests and poll tax?
The Grandfather clause, Literary tests, and the Poll tax were methods of voting restrictions used against African Americans, to weaken their political power. The literacy test was given to see if you could read, if you could not you were not allowed to vote. African Americans were often given tests that were much harder than whites, or given test in a foreign language. The poll tax was an annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to vote. Often blacks as well as white sharecroppers were too poor to pay so could not vote. To reinstate white voters who may have failed the literacy test or could not pay the poll tax, several Southern states added the grandfather clause to their constitutions. The clause stated that even if a man failed the test or could not afford the poll tax , he was still entitled to vote if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867. The date is important because before that time, freed slaves did not have the right to vote. The grandfather clause therefore did not allow them to vote
What was sharecropping, tenant farming, and debt peonage?
Share cropping was a system in which landowners assigned farm workers a few acres of land, seed, and tools. Sharecroppers kept a small portion of their crops and gave the rest to the landowners.
Tenant farming was when croppers who haves a little rented land for cash and so were able to keep all they harvested.
Debt Peonage was a system in which laborers were bound into servitude in order to work off a debt to the employers.
How did the election of 1876 signal the end of Reconstruction?
In the election of 1876 a political deal was made in which the congress agreed to accept Hayes as president if federal troops were withdrawn fro the South. After republican leaders agreed to the demands, Hayes was elected thus ending reconstruction.
Why did the U.S. adopt the policy of assimilation and why did assimilation fail?
Because the Native Americans still had supporters in the U.S and debates over the treatment of them continued. And many sympathizers supported it. It failed because the Native Americans did not want to give up their way of life.
What was the Dawes Act of 1887?
assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture
Describe the Battle of Little Big Horn, Sand Creek and Wounded Knee
battle between Custer’s army and the Sioux Indians & Cheyenne warriors
Custer and all his men were killed
-Indians fled north but were exhausted and starving and eventually agreed to live on the reservations
Sand Creek- One of the most tragic events. Over 150 Native Americans, mostly women and children were killed.
Wounded Knee- the Seventh cavalry slaughtered as many as 300 mostly unarmed Native Americans, including several children. The soldiers left the corpses to freeze on the ground.
How did the government and the railroads encourage settlement of the West?
The federal government made huge land grants to the railroads for laying tracks in the west. And land was cheap. The government passed legislation to encourage settlers.
What problems did farmers face after the Civil War? What steps did the farmers take to address their concerns?
Many southern farms were ruined and many farmers were killed during the war. Farmers
What did the Populist movement hope to achieve?
Economic reform. The election of u.s. senators by popular vote, single terms for the president and vice president, a secret ballot to end voter fraud, and an 8 hour workday and restrictions on immigration.
How did oil and steel fuel industrialization? What was the Bessemer process?
The wealth of natural resources, government support for business, and a growing urban population that provided cheap labor and markets for new products. The Bessemer process was the technique used to inject air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities.
What effect did the invention of the telephone and electricity have on people’s lives?
They helped improve workers standard of living. They created new jobs mainly for women. Urban travel became cheap and efficient and promoted the outward spread of cities.
What effect did the rapid growth of railroads have on the U.S?
It fostered the growth of towns, helped establish new markets, and offered rich opportunities for both visionaries and profiteers.
Give some examples how railroads engaged in corruption or unfair businesses practices?
The railroads sold government land grants to other businesses rather than to settlers, as the government intended. They fixed the prices to keep farmers in debt. And often charged different customer different rates, often demanding more for short hauls.
How did Munn V. Illinois and the Interstate Commerce act help Grangers ( farmers)
They won the right to regulate the railroads for the benefit of farmers and consumers.
How did industrialists gain control over their industries? Who were the major industrialists?
By merging with other corporations. The major industrialists were, J.P. Morgans Unites States Steel, & Rockerfellers Standard Oil Company
What is Social Darwinism and how did industrialists use this to support their ruthless business practices?
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle. Many industrialists used this to control the competition that threatened the growth of their business empires.
What was the Sherman Antitrust Act and to what extent was it effective?
It made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries. The Act was not clear so was unsuccessful.
why did workers form unions and to what extent were they successful?
Because of exploitation and unsafe working conditions, workers formed unions to try to improve their lot.
How did the American Federation of labor and the knights of labor differ?
The American Federation of Labor used strikes as a major tactic. Unlike the The Knight of labor who believed that strikes or a refusal to work was to be used as a last resort, they instead advocated arbitration
Describe the Haymarket Riot, Homestead strike and the Pullman Strike?
Haymarket Riot- People gathered at Chicago’s Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. Led to a bomb being tossed into the police line, 7 officers and several workers died in the chaos.
Homestead strike- Steelworkers called a strike after it was announced that wages were going to be cut. 3 detectives and 9 workers died.
Pullman Strike-Employees were laid off, others had to take a pay cut so went on strike, the strike turned violent, most of the strikers were fired and blacklisted from ever working for the railroad again.
What role did the government take in the conflict between unions and management?
They took the side of management. Industrial leaders with the help of the courts, turned the Sherman Antitrust Act against labor. Government issued injunctions against the labor act thus making it very difficult for unions to be effective.
Where did the new immigrants come from and describe their experiences coming to America
Europe, China, Japan, The West Indies and Mexico. They often did jobs that native american did not want to do. Worked for less and in very bad conditions. Many traveled over in the ships cargo holds and were rarely allowed on deck. they were crowded together in very poor conditions. Many died on the journey.
How did Nativists react to new immigrants, why?
Badly, they feared that their jobs would be taken and given to immigrants, who would accept lower wages. And felt that their way of life would be threatened as the immigrants had their own customs and languages.
Describe the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s Agreement
banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials.
Describe urbanization and what problems occurred as a result?
Urbanization is the growth of cities.
Problems- Cities were soon overcrowded. Housing was overcrowded and unsanitary.
Transportation-was in need of repair. Water quality was poor causing diseases such as Cholera and typhoid fever. Crime grew and Fires were frequent.
What was the Social Gospel Movement?
a reform program, they preached salvation through services to the poor.
What was the purpose of the settlement houses? Who was Jane Addams?
They were community centers in slum neighborhoods that mainly assisted the immigrants. they educated and helped the sick, they provided aid. Jane Addams was one of the influential members anti-war activist and a spokesperson for racial justice.
what were political machines and why did immigrants support them?
They were an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city.They offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Immigrants supported them because many of the precinct captains were themselves 1st or 2nd generation immigrants who understood the plight of the immigrant and helped them with naturalization.
Who was Boss Tweed and how did he use his influence to control politics?
He lead the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. He was the head of the New York Democratic Party
What was the patronage system and how did the Pendleton Civil Service Act end this practice?
the giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected.The Pendleton Civil Service Act help end the practice by authorizing a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates performance on an examination.
How did the views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois differ?
Booker T. believed that racism would end as soon as blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, he believed in the gradual approach. Du Bois disagreed with Washington, he believed that that the most talented tenth of the community attempt to achieve immediate inclusion into mainstream America.
What was the Tuskegee Institute and what was the Niagara Movement?
Tuskegee Institute was a University in Alabama that aimed to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in agricultural, domestic, or mechanical work. The Niagara Movement, founded by Du Bois insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African-American community would have well-educated leaders.
What was the ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson and how did this affect african Americans?
It ruled that the separation of races in public accommodations was legal and did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. It permitted legalized racial segregation for almost 60 years.
What were the Jim Crow Laws?
They were racial segregation laws that separated
blacks and whites in public and private facilities.
What were the goals of the Progressive Movement?
To restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life.
How did the YMCA and the salvation Army help society?
They fed and helped the poor. Sponsored classes and opened libraries.
Who was Florence Kelley and how did she help women and children?
She was an advocate for improving the lives of women and children.
what was the Woman’s christian Temperance Movement and what did they advocate?
Reformers. They felt that morality, not the workplace held the key to improving the lives of poor people. They advocated Prohibition, the banning of alcoholic beverages.
What role did Robert. M La Follette play in state reform?
He was the progressive Republican leader who led the way in regulating big business.
What were muckrakers?
Journalist who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century
Describe the work of Ida M. Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, and Eugene V. Debs.
They were all Muckrackers who exposed corruption in big business and poor working conditions
Why did Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the National Women Suffrage Association?
For women’s rights, for the right to vote
How did President Roosevelt protect the environment and promote business regulation?
He compromised to benefit both public health and the environment. And passed laws to
What role did Du Bois and the NAACP play in fighting for racial equality?
They fought for equality among the races and demanded immediate social and economic equality for African Americans.
Who was Gifford Pinchot and what problems arose with Pinchot and Taft over public land?
The head of the U.S. Forest Service who believed that wilderness areas could be scientifically managed to yield public enjoyment while allowing private development. Taft favored unrestricted commercial development.
Why did Republicans create the Bull Moose Party? What were the Party’s goals?
Because Taft had the advantage of being the incumbent, the holder of the office. So they formed a third party which became known as the Bull Moose Party. Their goals were to exert their powers for the welfare of the people.
How did President Wilson attack trusts and monopolies?
He supported small business and free-market competitions He characterized all business monopolies as evil and were a threat and all business
How did Wilson reform banking?
by establishing the federal reserve system.
How did women finally gain the right to vote? What amendment?
The Suffrage Party fought for the right to vote Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment.
What role did Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul play in gaining women suffrage ( vote)
They were leaders of suffrage movements for women and organized pickets, and went on hunger strikes
What is imperialism
the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
How did global competition, a desire for military strength, and a thirst for new markets lead to American Imperialism?
It was already a trend around the world and America desired military strength, had a thirst for new markets and had a belief in cultural superiority
How was the Monroe Doctrine used by President Wilson to defend American involvement in Latin America?
It stated that the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs. So later Wilson used the same policy on the Europeans. It became the foundation for future American Policy.
How is Manifest Destiny used to justify United States Imperialism?
By a belief that was held by many Americans, that they were ordained by God to move westward, to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory.
How did the Roosevelt Corallary lead to increased U.S. involvement in Latin America?
Financial factors drew the U.S. further into Latin American affairs. In the 19th century, many Latin American nations had borrowed huge sums of money from European banks to build railroads. Roosevelt feared that if these nations defaulted on their loans Europeans might intervene.
Describe how the Open Door notes eliminated the spheres of influence ( foreign involvement) in China?
Letters were issued by John Hay the united secretary of state
Identify how and why the united States acquired each new territory. Alaska
Puerto Rico
The Philippines
Alaska-paid 7.2 million because it was rich in minerals and oil.
Hawaii- Taken by force, was economically important to the states, American merchants stopped there on their way to China and East India most of the crops were sold to U.S.
Puerto Rico-The U.S.A. invaded Puerto Rico. In the Treaty of Paris the U.S. acquired Puerto Rico from the Spanish.
The Philippines- The U.S. wanted the Philippines because of Imperialism. They acquired it by using the Treaty of Paris.
Explain the reasons why the United states and Spain went to war. Yellow Journalism, the De Lome Letter. The U.S.S. Maine.
A style of writing which was used to enrage readers and gain sympathy,

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