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MIS-213 CH1

Information System
a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective
Data
raw facts, such as an employee #, # of hours worked in a week, inventory part #s, or sales orders
Information
collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the fact of the facts themselves
Alphanumeric data
#s, letters, and other characters
Image data
graphic images and pictures
Audio data
sound, noise & tones
Video data
moving images or pictures
Electronic Records Management
electronic forms to store, organize, and control important data
Process
a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome (turning data into information)
Knowledge
the awareness and understanding of a set of information & ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision
Knowledge workers
people who create, use, and disseminate knowledge, and are usually professionals in science, engineering, business, and other areas
Knowledge management system
organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to create, store, and use the organization’s knowledge & experience
Input
the activity of gathering and capturing raw data (# of hours worked before getting paycheck)
Processing
converting or transforming data into useful outputs (ex. calculations, comparing data, storing data)
Output
production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports (paychecks, reports, information supplied; can become input for another)
Feedback
output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities (errors or problems)
Forecasting
predicting future events to avoid problems (before a shortage occurs)
Computer-based information system
a single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information (ex: company’s payroll, order entry, or inventory-control system)
Information Technology
refers to hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications
Technology infrastructure
all the hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information
Hardware
computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities (keyboards, mice, scanning, computer chips)
Software
the computer programs that govern the operation of the computer
Database
organized collection of facts and information
Telecommunications
electronic transmission of signals for communications, which enable organizations to carry out their processes and tasks through effective computer networks
Networks
computers & equipment that are connected in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communications
Internet
the world’s largest computer network, actually consisting of thousands of interconnected networks all freely exchanging information
Intranet
an internal network based on web technologies that allows people within an organization to exchange information & work on projects
Extranet
a network based on web technologies that allows selected outsiders such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of a company’s intranet
Procedures
the strategies, policies, methods, & rules for using CBIS
Business information systems
often integrated in one product and can be delivered by the same software package
e-commerce
any business transaction executed electronically between companies (business2business), companies & customers (busines2consumer), consumer & other consumer (consumer2consumer), business and the public sector, and consumers and the public sector
Mobile commerce
transactions conducted anywhere, anytime. Relies on wireless communications [ex handheld computers, laptop, mobile devices]
Electronic procurement
involves using information systems and the internet to aquire parts & supplies
Electronic business
using information systems and the internet to perform all business-related tasks and functions [ex. Accounting, finance, marketing, manufacturing, & human resource activities
Transaction
any business-related exchange, such as payments to employees, sales to customers, and payments to suppliers
Transaction processing system
an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions
Enterprise systems
help organizations perform and integrate important tasks, such as paying employees and suppliers, controlling inventory, sending invoices, and ordering supplies
Enterprise resource planning
is a set of integrated programs that manages the vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization. (replace on program with many unified programs)
Management information system
organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makers (focuses on operational efficiency)
Decision support systems
an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making.
Artificial intelligence
a field in which the computer system takes on the characteristics of human intelligence
Expert systems
give the computer the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field
Knowledge base
the collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome
Virtual reality
the stimulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in three dimensions
Systems development
the activity of creating or modifying business systems
Organization
a formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
Value chain
a series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service (investigate each chain)
Supply chain management
helps determine what suppliers are required for the value chain, what quantities are needed to meet customer demand, how the supplies should be processed (manufactured) into finished goods & services, and how the shipment of supplies and products to customers should be scheduled, monitored and controlled
Customer relationship management
programs help a company manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sale, and programs to retain loyal customers
Culture
a set of major understanding and assumptions shared by a group
Organizational culture
the major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization
Organizational change
the responses that are necessary so that for-profit and nonprofit organizations can plan for, implement, and handle change
Technology acceptance model
specifies the factors that can lead to better attitudes about the information, along with higher acceptance and usage of the system in the organization
Technology diffusion
a measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization
Technology infusion
an extent to which technology permeates an area or department
Competitive advantage
a significant (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition
Five-Forces Model
a widely accepted model that identifies 5 key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive advantage
Productivity
a measure of the output achieved divided by the input required
Return on investment
one measure of IS value that investigates the additional profits or benefits that are generated as a percentage of the investment in IS technology
Total cost of ownership
the measurement of the total cost of owning computer equipment, including desktops, networks, & large computers
Information center
a support function that provides users with assistance, training, application development, documentation, equipment selection and setup standards, technical assistance, and troubleshooting
Information service unit
a miniature IS department
Certification
a process for testing skills and knowledge, which results in a statement by the certifying authority that states an individual is capable of performing a particular kind of job

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