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MIS 373

competitiveness, strategy, and productivity
Three separate, but related business concepts that are vitally important to organizations:
competitiveness
how effectively and organization meets the wants and needs of a customer relative to others that offer similar goods or services
mission
states the purpose of the organization, serves as the basis for organizational goals
goals
provide detail and the scope of the mission, serve as the basis for operational strategies
strategy
a plan for achieving organizational goals
organizational strategies
overall strategies that relate the the entire organization, support the achievement of organizational goals and mission
core competencies
the special attributes or abilities that give an organization competitive edge, need to be aligned with strategies to be effective
order qualifiers
characteristics that customers perceive as minimum standards of acceptability for a product or service to be considered
order winners
characteristics of a product or service that cause it to be perceived as better than the competition
functional level strategies
strategies that relate to each of the functional areas and that support achievement of the organizational strategy
operations strategy
the approach, consistent with organization strategy, that is used to guide the operations function
tactics
the methods and actions taken to accomplish strategies, “how to” part of the process
operations
the actual “doing” part of the process
productivity
a measure of the effective use of resources, usually expressed as a ration of output to input
essence, goods, services
the___ of an organization in the ____ and ___ it offers
economic
Low demand, excessive warranty claims, need to reduce costs (resign for design or re-design)
social and demographic
aging populations, population shifts (reason for design or re-design)
political, liability, or legal
government changes, safety issues, new regulations (resign for design or re-design)
competitive
new or changed products and services (resign for design or re-design)
cost or availability
raw materials, components, labor, water, energy (resign for design or re-design)
technological
product components, processes (resign for design or re-design)
competitor based
type of idea generation that involves studying how a competitor operates and its products and services
reverse engineering
dismantling and inspecting a competitor’s product to discover product improvements
research and development
organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product innovation
basic research
R&D objective is advancing the state of knowledge about a subject without and near-term expectation of commercial applications
applied research
R&D objective is achieving commercial applications
development
R&D objetive is to convert the results of applied research into useful commercial applications
manufacturability
the capability of an organization to produce an item at an acceptable profit
serviceability
the capability of an organization to provide a service at an acceptable cost or profit
reliability
the ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intend function under a prescribed set of conditions
redundancy
the use of backup components to increase reliability
standardization
extent to which there is an absence of variety in a product, service, or process
mass customization
a strategy of producing basically standardized goods or services, but incorporating some degree of customization in the final product or service
delayed differentiation
the process of producing, but not quite completing, a product or service until the customers preferences are known
modular design
a form or standardization in which component parts are grouped into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged
concurrent engineering
bringing design and manufacturing engineers together early in the design phase
design for manufacturing
the designing of products t hat are compatible with an organization’s abilities (DFM)
design for assembly
design that focus on reducing the number of parts in a product and on assembly methods and sequence (DFA)
component commonality
when products have a high degree of similarity in features and components, a part can be used in multiple products
quality function development
an approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into both product and service development (QFD)
service design
choice of service strategy, which determines the nature and focus of the service, and the target market
feedback
measurements taken at various points in the transformation process
control
the comparison of feedback against previously established standards to determine if corrective action is needed
products package
combinations of goods and services
model
an abstraction of reality; a simplification
craft production
highly skilled workers use simple, flexible tools to produce small quantities of customized goods
scientific management
type of management based on observation, measurement, analysis, and improvement of work methods, and economic incentives
suppliers, employees, distributors, and retailers
operations management incorporates which groups?
changes in the market
what would cause a business to change its product or service design
design of the product and process
what is the first step in creating a new operation?
system
a set of interrelated parts that must work together
increase output and hold inputs constant
what will always lead to an increases in productivity?
theory X
workers do not like work and must be induced to do it
theory Y
workers enjoy work and are committed to doing it
lean system
type of system with a higher quality than most conventional systems, use highly-skilled workers and are very responsive to customer demand
agility
the ability of an organization to respond quickly to demands or opportunities
division of labor
the breaking up on a production process into small tasks, so that each worker performs small portion of the overall job
e-commerce
consumer-to-business transactions
ethical framework
a sequence of steps intended to guide thinking and subsequent decision or action
lead time
the time between ordering good or service and receiving it
Pareto phenomenon
a few factors for a high percentage of the occurrence of some events
six sigma
a process for reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing customer satisfaction
supply chain
a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service
time-based strategy
strategy that focuses on reduction of time needed to accomplish tasks
computer aided design
product design using computer graphics
failure
situation in which a product, part, or system does not perform as intended
normal operating conditions
the set of conditions under which an item’s reliability is specified
product liability
the responsibility of a manufacturer for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product
remanufacturing
refurbishing used products by replacing worn-out or defective components/recycling
service blueprint
a method used in service design to describe and analyze a proposed service
service delivery system
the facilities, processes, and skills needed to provide a service
service package
the physical resources needed to perform the service, the accompanying goods, and the explicit and implicit services included
value analysis
examination of the function or parts and materials in an effort to reduce cost and/or improve product performance
uniform commercial code
products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness/ must be suitable for intended use

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