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MIS Final Exam: Chapter 17

System Development Life
understanding the basics of software development projects to help organizations and potential software development
Legacy System
old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization
the process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system
Software Customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
Off the Shelf Software
supports general business process and does not require any specific software customization to meet organization needs
System Development Life Cycle
the overall process from developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
– determines budgets, gathers system requirements and user documentations
Process of the System Development Life Cycle
Business Needs > Assessment of Functions > Benefits outweighing costs
Planning Phase
a high level plan of intended project and determine project goals
– most critical phase
– organizations must carefully plan activities for success
Change Agent
person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period without any analysis
a temporary activity a company takes to create a unique product, service or result
Project Management
application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to protect activities to meet project requirements
Project Manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, responsible for executing the entire project
– develops a project scope
Project Scope
describes the business need, justifications, requirements and current boundaries for the project
Project Plan
formal approved document that manages and controls an entire project
Analysis Phase
firm analyses its user requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of an intended system
Business Requirements
the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful, drive the entire system development efforts
– will state what the business must accomplish in order to be succesful
Requirements Management
the process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project
– dynamic in nature
Requirements Definition Document
prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
consists of the users actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
– if it does not meet requirements it is a failed system
– time energy and resources to gather accurate and detailed requirements
Process Modeling
involves graphically representing the process that captures, manipulates, stores and distributes information between a system and its enviroment
Data Flow Diagram
illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the process and data stores within a system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
Computer Aided Software Engineering
tools and software suites that automate system analysis design and development
Design Phase
establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system
– is the physical structure
Graphical User Interface
interface to an entire system, ability to monitor information systems for an entire system
Development Phase
Takes all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into actual systems
Software Engineering
disciplined approach for constructing information systems through common methods, techniques or tools
Control Objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
A set of basic practices that help an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
Scriptive Language
programming method that provides for interactive models for a website
Object Orientated Language
group data and corresponding process into objects
Fourth Generation Technology (4GL)
programming languages that look similar to human languages
Testing Phase
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
defects in the code of an information system
Test Conditions
details in the steps of the system must perform with expected results
– execute conditions and compare results within the actual
Implementation Phase
The organizations places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
User Documentation
Created that highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems
Maintenance Phase
organization performs changes corrections additions and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet business goals
Corrective Maintenance
makes system changes to repare design flaws coding errors or issues
Preventative Maintenance
makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failures
Prime Reasons for Project Failure
unclear business requirements
skipping SDLC phases
failure to manage project scope and plan
change in technology
White Box Testing
programmer perspective
knowledge of the code
full visibility to internal functioning
Black Box Testing
user perspective
no knowledge of code
able to observe system behaviors only
Alpha Testing
assess if the entire system meets design requirements of users
Development Testing
test the system to ensure it is bug free
Integration Testing
verifies that separate systems can work together passing data back and forth correctly
System Testing
verifies that the units or pieces of code function correctly when integrated
User Acceptance Testing
determine if the system satisfies the user and business requirements
Unit Testing
tests individual units or pieces of coding for a system
Parallel Implementation
uses both the legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new system functions correctly
Plunge Implementation
discards the legacy system and immediately migrates all users to the new system
Pilot Implementation
assigns a small group of people to use the new system until it is verified that it works correctly then the remaining users migrate to a new system
Phased Implementation
installs the new system in phases (for example my department) until it is verified that it works correctly

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