simplified representation or abstraction of reality. help managers calculate risks, understand uncertainty, change variables, and manipulate time to make decisions.
encompasses all the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performance of daily operational or structured decisions.
online transaction processing
OLTP-the capture of transaction and event information using technology to process the information according to defined business rules, store the information, and update existing information to reflect the information.
transaction processing system
TPS- the basic business system that serves the operational level (analysts) and assists in making structured decisions. ex) payroll system
the inputs for a TPS- the originial transaction record.
encompasses all organizational information and its primary purpose is to support the perfomance of managerial analysts or semistructured decisions.
online analytical processing
OLAP- the manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making.
Decision Support systems
DSSs-model information using OLAP, which provides asistance in evaluating and choosing among different courses of action.enable high-level managers to examine and manipulate large amounts of detailed data from different internal and external sources
checks the impact of a change in a variable or assumption on the model. ex) “what will happen to the supply chain if a hurricane in South Carolina reduces holding inventory from 30 percent to 10 percent?”
a special case of what-if analysis, is the study of impact on other variables when one variable is changed repeatedly. usefeul when users are uncertain about the assumptions made in estimating the value of certain key variables
finds the in puts necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output. opposite of what-if analysis
an extension of goal-seeking analysis, finds the optimum value for a target variable by repeatedly changing other variables, subject to specified constraints.
executive information system
(EIS) a specialized DSS that supports senior-level executives and unstructured, long-term, nonroutine decisions requiring judgement, evaluation, and insight.
the level of detail in the model or the decision-making process. the greater level of this, the deeper the level of detail or fineness of data
produces graphical displays of patterns and complex relationships in large amounts of data.
tracks KPIs and CSFs by compiling information from multiple sources and tailoring it to meet user needs
the aggregation of data from simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated information
enables users to view details and details of details, of information
the ability to look at information from different perspectives
AI- simulates human thinking and behavior, such as the ability to reason and learn.
various commercial applications of artificial intelligence. they include sensors, software, and devices that emulate and enhance human capabilities
computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems.
a category of AI that attempts to emulate the way the human brain works. analyze large quantities of information to establish patterns and characteristics in situations where the logic or rules are unknown
mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information.
an artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem.
a special-purpose knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users
software that will search several retailer websites and provide a comparison of each retailer’s offerings including price and availability
computer-simulated environment that can be a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world.
also called front-office processes. result in a product or service received by an organization’s external customer. includes fulfiling orders, communicating with customers, and sending out bills and marketing information
also called back-office processes. invisible to the external customerbut essential to the effective management of the business; include goal setting, day-to-day planning, giving performance feedback and rewards, and allocating resources
As-Is process models
represent the current state of the operation that has been mapped, without any specific improvements or changes to existing processes
To-Be process models
show the results of applying change improvement opportunities to the current (As-Is) process model
layout arranges the steps of a business process into a set of rows depicting various elements
includes the tasks, activities, and responsibilities required to execute each step in a business process
business process improvement
attempts to understand and measure the current process and make performance improvements accordingly
the process of computerizing manual tasks, making them more efficient and effective and dramatically lowering operational costs
improves business process efficiencies by simplifying or eliminating unnecessary steps
occur when resources reach full capacity and cannot handle any additional demands; they limit throughput and impede operations. A computer working at its maximum capacity will be unable to handle increased demand and will become a bottleneck in the process
occurs when a task or activity is unnecessarily repeated, for example, if both the sales department and the accounting department check customer credit
the time required to process an order, is a common KPI for operations management.
business process reengineering
BPR- the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises
business process management systems
BPM- focus on evaluating and improving processes that include both person-to-person workflow and system-to-system communications
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