1) A ________ is a person or an organization that seeks to obtain or alter data or other IS assets illegally, without the owner’s permission and often without the owner’s knowledge.
2) Which of the following is considered a threat caused by human error?
A) an employee inadvertently installs an old database on top of the current one
3) Which of the following is considered a computer crime?
D) hacking of information systems
4) ________ occurs when someone deceives by pretending to be someone else.
5) When referring to security threats, pretexting, sniffing, spoofing, and phishing are all examples of ________.
A) unauthorized data disclosure
6) A ________ pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data, such as account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth.
7) Email spoofing is a synonym for ________.
8) ________ is a technique for intercepting computer communications, either through a physical connection to a network or without a physical connection in the case of wireless networks.
9) ________ take computers with wireless connections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks and then monitor and intercept wireless traffic at will.
C) Drive-by sniffers
10) Which of the following is an example of a sniffing technique?
11) ________ occurs when a person breaks into a network to steal data such as customer lists, product inventory data, employee data, and other proprietary and confidential data.
12) Which of the following is most likely to be a result of hacking?
C) an unauthorized transaction from a user’s credit card
13) ________ occurs through human error when employees do not follow proper procedures or when procedures have not been well designed.
B) Incorrect data modification
14) ________ is the type of security loss that involves computer criminals invading a computer system and replacing legitimate programs with their own unauthorized ones that shut down legitimate applications and substitute their own processing to spy, steal, and manipulate data.
15) Which of the following usually happens in a malicious denial-of-service attack?
B) a hacker floods a Web server with millions of bogus service requests
16) ________ present the largest risk for an organization’s infrastructure loss.
B) Natural disasters
17) Which of the following statements is true about losses due to computer security threats?
B) Some organizations don’t report all their computer crime losses, and some won’t report such losses at all.
18) A(n) ________ is a computer program that senses when another computer is attempting to scan the disk or otherwise access a computer.
A) intrusion detection system
19) Nonword passwords are vulnerable to a ________ attack, in which the password cracker tries every possible combination of characters.
C) brute force
20) ________ are small files that the browser stores on the user’s computer when he/she visits Web sites and enables him/her to access Web sites without having to sign in every time.
21) Removing and disabling ________, which may contain sensitive security data, presents an excellent example of the trade-off between improved security and cost.
22) Which of the following is a critical security function that the senior management should address in an organization?
C) establishing the security policy
23) In information security, which of the following is true of managing risk?
B) Organizations should implement safeguards that balance the trade-off between risk and cost.
24) Which of the following was passed to give individuals the right to access their own health data created by doctors and other healthcare providers?
C) the HIPAA of 1996
25) Which of the following is classified as a technical safeguard?
26) A(n) ________ has a microchip in it to hold data.
B) smart card
27) Users of smart cards are required to enter a ________ to be authenticated.
C) personal identification number
28) Which of the following is used for biometric authentication?
B) facial features
29) Which of the following statements is true of biometric identification?
D) It often faces resistance from users for its invasive nature.
30) A ________ is a number used to encrypt data.
31) In asymmetric encryption, each site has a ________ for encoding messages.
C) public key
32) With ________, the sender and receiver transmit a message using different keys.
A) asymmetric encryption
33) Secure Socket Layer is also known as ________.
B) transport layer security
34) Which of the following statements is true of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL)?
B) It is used to send sensitive data such as credit card numbers.
35) Mark is transferring funds online through the Web site of a reputed bank. Which of the following will be displayed in the address bar of his browser that will let him know that the bank is using the SSL protocol?
36) A ________ examines each part of a message and determines whether to let that part pass.
A) packet-filtering firewall
37) Packet-filtering firewalls ________.
A) can filter both inbound and outbound traffic
38) ________ is the term used to denote viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
39) A virus is a computer program that replicates itself. The program code that causes unwanted activity is called the ________.
40) ________ are viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files.
C) Trojan horses
41) A ________ is a type of virus that propagates using the Internet or other computer networks.
42) ________ is similar to spyware but it watches user activity and produces pop-ups.
43) Which of the following is likely to be accepted by a poorly designed application, leading to improper disclosure of data?
D) SQL injection
44) ________ refers to an organization-wide function that is in charge of developing data policies and enforcing data standards.
A) Data administration
45) ________ is a function pertaining to a particular database that develops procedures and practices to control and protect the database.
B) Database administration
46) Which of the following statements is true of data administration?
D) It is involved in establishing data safeguards.
47) Key escrow is a(n) ________.
B) safety procedure that allows a trusted party to have a copy of the encryption key
48) ________ protect databases and other organizational data.
C) Data safeguards
49) The computers that run the DBMS and all devices that store database data should reside in locked, controlled-access facilities. This is done to ________.
D) provide physical security
50) Which of the following statements is true with regard to human safeguards?
C) Documenting position sensitivity enables security personnel to prioritize their activities based on possible risk.
51) ________ involve the people and procedure components of information systems.
C) Human safeguards
52) Which of the following statements is true about human safeguards for employees?
B) User accounts should be defined to give users the least possible privilege necessary to perform their jobs.
53) When an employee is terminated, IS administrators should receive advance notice so that they can ________.
D) remove the user account and password
54) ________ a Web site means to take extraordinary measures to reduce a system’s vulnerability, using special versions of the operating system.
55) The process of hardening a Web site is a ________ safeguard.
56) ________ are the primary means of authentication and are important not just for access to a user’s computer, but also for authentication to other networks and servers to which the user may have access.
57) Which of the following systems procedures is specifically the responsibility of operations personnel?
C) creating back up of system databases
58) ________ involves accomplishing job tasks during failure.
59) Firewalls produce ________ which include lists of all dropped packets, infiltration attempts, and unauthorized access attempts from within the firewall.
C) activity logs
60) ________ are false targets for computer criminals to attack.
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