Which of the following is true of the distribution process?
It includes buying and selling negotiations.
In a _____ distribution structure, an importer controls a fixed supply of goods and the marketing system develops around the philosophy of selling a limited supply of goods at high prices to a small number of affluent customers.
Which of the following statements is true of a traditional distribution structure?
The marketing system develops around the philosophy of selling a limited supply of goods at high prices to a small number of affluent customers.
Which of the following distribution structures is also known as a traditional distribution structure?
Which of the following statements is true regarding an import-oriented distribution structure?
The importer-wholesaler traditionally performs most of the marketing functions.
_____ has long been considered the most effective nontariff barrier to the Japanese market.
The Japanese distribution structure
_____ are considered to be the foundation of the Japanese distribution system.
Which of the following characterizes the business philosophy of the Japanese distribution channels?
Which of the following statements is true of the Japanese market?
The Japanese distribution structure supports long-term dealer-supplier relationships.
In Japan, under the Large-Scale Retail Store Law, all proposals for new “large” stores are first judged by the _____.
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
In the international business arena, which of the following is considered to be one of Walmart’s strengths?
Internal Internet-based system.
General Motors, _____, and DaimlerChrysler have created a single online site called Covisint for purchasing automotive parts from suppliers.
Ford Motor Company
Which of the following countries has the largest number of retailers?
In the context of distribution patterns, the rate of change in retailing around the world appears to be directly related to the _____.
speed of economic development
_____ is often the approach of choice in markets with insufficient or underdeveloped distribution systems.
Which of the following has proved to be an important way to break the trade barrier imposed by the Japanese distribution system?
Direct sales through catalogs.
Which of the following are frequently criticized for not representing the best interests of a manufacturer?
_____ take title to manufacturers’ goods and assume the trading risks.
The distribution channel process includes all activities, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the _____.
Which of the following statements is true regarding agent middlemen?
They work on commission and arrange for sales in the foreign country.
Which of the following statements is true regarding merchant middlemen?
They assume trading risks.
A disadvantage when using home-country middlemen as intermediaries in the distribution process is:
the limited control over the distribution process.
A major trade-off when using home-country middlemen is:
the large amount of commission charged by the home-country middlemen.
Home-country middlemen are also known as _____ middlemen.
In the context of the different types of middlemen, which of the following is an example of a manufacturer’s retail store?
James Barker is the marketing manager of a firm with small international sales volume. He is looking for a middleman who can take responsibility for promotion of the company’s products, credit arrangements, physical handling, and market research. Also, the middleman must be able to provide information on financial, patent, and licensing matters. In addition, the middleman should agree to work under the name of the firm. Which of the following types of middlemen would be the best choice for Mr. Barker if he wants to meet his objectives?
An export management company.
Which of the following statements is true regarding an export management company (EMC)?
It calls for a minimum investment from the parent firm to get into international markets.
A major disadvantage of _____ is that they can seldom afford to make the kind of market investment needed to establish deep distribution for products.
export management companies
For companies seeking entrance into the complicated Japanese distribution system, _____ offer one of the easiest routes to success because they virtually control distribution through all levels of channels in Japan.
Which of the following was a goal of the Export Trading Company Act?
To remove antitrust disincentives to export activities.
Which of the following arrangements are undertaken when a firm wants to keep its seasonal distribution channels functioning throughout the year?
Complementary marketing is commonly known as _____.
Companies with marketing facilities in different countries with excess marketing capacity sometimes take on additional product lines for international distribution. The formal name for this type of marketing is:
A(n) _____ is an individual agent middleman or an agent middleman firm providing a selling service for manufacturers that covers only one or two markets.
manufacturer’s export agent
A _____ provides a selling service for a manufacturer, has a short-term relationship, and operates on a straight commission basis.
manufacturer’s export agent
The Webb-Pomerene Act of 1918 made it possible for American business firms to join forces in export activities without being subject to which of the following acts?
The Sherman Antitrust Act.
A(n) _____ is a domestic middleman set up in a foreign country or U.S. possession that can obtain a corporate tax exemption on a portion of the earnings generated by the sale or lease of export property.
foreign sales corporation
Which of the following is a type of domestic middleman?
Export Management Companies.
In the context of types of domestic middlemen, the WTO in 2003 ruled _____ to be in violation of international trade rules, thus starting a major trade dispute with the European Union.
foreign sales corporations
Which of the following is true of foreign sales corporations?
They can function as a principal or a commissioned agent.
Which of the following factors affects the choice of distribution channels?
Available distribution intermediaries.
Which of the following is one of the six Cs of distribution channel strategy?
In the context of factors affecting choice of channels, one of the key elements in distribution decisions includes _____.
the functions performed by middlemen
Which of the following is a critical element associated with using a particular type of middleman?
In which of the following modes of distribution in the foreign market will a company have to make maximum financial investment?
Direct sales force.
Which of the following is one of the highest costs of doing business in China?
Capital required to maintain effective distribution.
Which of the following modes of distribution affords the most control over the distribution channels but often at a cost that is not practical?
Direct sales force.
Most middlemen have little loyalty to their vendors. They handle brands in good times when the line is making money but quickly reject such products within a season or a year if they fail to produce during that period. This is an example of problems associated with which of the following six Cs of distribution channel strategy?
One of the reasons that channels of distribution often pose longevity problems is that most middlemen _____.
have little loyalty to their vendors
_____ is an area that should be on a checklist of criteria for evaluating middlemen servicing a market.
Which of the following actions should be taken to begin with the search for prospective middlemen?
Studying the target market.
Experienced exporters suggest that the only way to select a middleman is:
to personally talk to ultimate consumers to find whom they consider to be the best distributors.
Sixty percent of the Japanese population lives in the _____ market area, which essentially functions as one massive city.
Most middlemen have little loyalty to their vendors. They handle brands in good times when the line is making money but quickly reject such products within a season or a year if they fail to produce during that period. This is an example of problems associated with which of the following six Cs of channel strategy?
Apex Corporation is a wholesaler for Global Electronics in the French market. Global Electronics discovered that Apex Corp. was diverting some of their goods to the English market. Apex Corp. could get a greater profit in the English market because the goods were bought by the firm at a cheaper price in France. In the context of the above scenario, which of the following forms of business is Apex engaged in?
In the context of controlling middlemen, parallel importing is also known as _____.
E-commerce is more developed in _____ than the rest of the world, partly because of the lower cost of access to the Internet than found elsewhere.
the United States
In the context of the Internet in international marketing channels, technically, e-commerce is a form of _____ selling.
In the context of cultural reactions when engaging in e-commerce, the color red is associated with socialism in _____.
Which of the following is true of a physical distribution system?
It includes transportation mode, inventory quantities, and packing.
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