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Mngt 310 Chapter 2.

Which of the following statements about the origins of management is true?
Management as a field of study is only about 125 years old.
How did the Industrial Revolution change jobs and organizations?
Low-paid, unskilled workers running machines began to replace high-paid, skilled artisans.
Prior to the introduction of ____, five workers each given an identical task could use five different methods to perform the task with some methods being significantly more efficient than others.
Scientific management.
____ occurs when workers deliberately slow down their pace or restrict their work outputs.
Soldiering.
Frederick Taylor is famous for____.
Creating the principles of scientific management.
Prior to the development of scientific management principles, workers whose work pace was significantly faster than the normal pace in their work group were known as ____ and were often unpopular with their fellow workers.
Rate busters.
The goal of scientific management was to____.
Find the one best way to perform each task.
Which of the following is NOT part of the principles of scientific management?
Use group dynamics to ensure organizational goals are met.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth are important to management because they ____.
Used motion studies to eliminate unnecessary or repetitive motions from the work process.
During World War I, battlefield surgery was crude. Which of the following management theorists would most likely have used their understanding of how work is done to help surgeons eliminate unnecessary motions, operate more efficiently, and save more lives by closely studying how surgeries were performed?
Frank Gilbreth.
Which management theorist would most likely have said, “The greatest waste in the world comes from needless, ill-directed, and ineffective motions”?
Frank Gilbreth.
A contractor was feeling defeated because the job he was working on was so far behind schedule. As he looked at the job site, he saw one worker moving bricks by carrying two at a time from where they were unloaded to where they were needed. He saw another climbing up a ladder with a few shingles, climbing back down to get more, and then repeating the process. ____ could be used to determine how the workers could perform their tasks more efficiently.
Time and motion studies.
The Gantt Chart___.
Is a chart that shows when and where tasks need to be completed so that a job can be completed in a timely fashion.
In which of the following situations would a Gantt chart be appropriate to use?
Building a bridge.
Installing a local area network for a computer system.
Rebuilding communities destroyed by hurricane.
Planning a Mardi Gras parade.
All of these.
At about the same time as management theorists were developing scientific management principles in the United States, Max Weber was in Europe developing ____.
Bureaucratic management.
According to Weber, a bureaucracy ____.
Is the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience.
Which of the following statements about division of labor is true?
All of the above statements about division are true.
As defined by Weber, the goal of bureaucracy is to ____.
Achieve an organization’s goal in the most efficient way possible.
Which of the following is NOT associated with Max Weber’s bureaucratic management?
Span of management.
____ is best known for developing the five functions of managers and the fourteen principles of management.
Henri Favol.
Which of the following management theorists used his own personal experiences as a CEO to create his theory of management?
Henri Favol.
Henri Fayol is responsible for developing ____.
Administrative management.
Which management theorist would most likely have said, “The success of an enterprise generally depends much more on the administrative ability of its leaders than on their technical ability”?
Henri Favol.
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, ____ requires that each employee should report to and receive orders from just one boss.
Unity of direction.
The ____ approach to management focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work.
Human Relations.
According to human relations management ____.
Success depends on treating workers well.
Which of the following management theorists helped develop human relations management?
Mary Parker Follett.
According to Mary Parker Follett, ____ is an approach for dealing with conflict in which one party satisfies its desires and objectives at the expense of the other party’s desires and objectives.
Domination.
According to Mary Parker Follett, if managers use ____ to settle or reduce conflict, each of the parties involved give up some of what they want.
Compromise.
In a departure from mainstream management thinking, Mary Parker Follett believed ____.
Conflict could be beneficial.
Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal with conflict in one of three ways:____.
Domination, compromise, and integration.
According to Mary Parker Follett, ____ is the easiest way to deal with conflict for the moment, but it is not usually successful in the long run.
Domination.
With integrative conflict resolution ____.
Both parties work together to create an alternative solution that includes shared preferences and integrates interests.
According to Mary Parker Follett ____.
All of these are true.
____ was the management theorist who said, “As conflict is here in this world, as we cannot avoid it, we should, I think, use it to work for us. Instead of condemning it, we should set it to work for us.”
Mary Parker Follett.
Management theorist ____ is best known for his role in the Hawthorne Studies.
Elton Mayo.
The Hawthorne Studies showed how ____ can influence work group performance, for better or worse.
a. organizational codes of ethics
The Hawthorne Studies showed how ____ can influence work group performance, for better or worse.
Group Cohesiveness.
During the Bank Wiring Room phase of his Hawthorne Studies, Elton Mayo witnessed behavior reminiscent of the ____ Frederick Taylor observed.
Soldiering.
Which management theorist provided managers with a better understanding of the effect group social interactions and employee satisfaction have on individual and group performance?
Elton Mayo.
Chester Barnard defined a(n) ____ as “a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.”
Organization.
According to Chester Barnard, which of the following is an example of an organization?
All of the above.
According to Chester Barnard, for many managerial requests or directives, there is a zone of indifference. A zone of indifference ____.
Appears when the acceptance of managerial authority is automatic.
In general, people will be indifferent to managerial directives or orders if they ____.
Meet all of the above qualifications.
Which of the following management theorists believed that workers ultimately grant managers their authority?
Chester Barnard.
____ involves managing the daily production of goods and services.
Operations management.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a commonly used operations management tool?
Target marketing.
____ is responsible for the fact that most products are manufactured using standardized, interchangeable parts.
Eli Whitney.
In general, ____ uses a quantitative approach to find ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or reduce costly inventories.
Operations Management.
Today thanks to ____, Unverferth, a farm equipment manufacturer, was able to use computer-assisted design in the development of its new 12-row subsoiler for cotton production.
Gaspard Mones.
What is the term used for the amount and number of raw materials, parts, and finished products that a company has in its possession?
Inventory.
Which of the following statements about information management is true?
Two types of information technology are the cash register and the typewriter.
A systems view of management allows managers to ____.
Deal with the complex environment in which their companies operate.
A(n) ____ is a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole.
System.
All ____ function without interacting with their environment.
Closed systems.
Nearly all rganizations that interact with their environments and depend on them for survival should be viewed as ____.
Open Systems.
____ occurs when 1 + 1 = 3.
Synergy.
Synergy occurs when ____.
Two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart.
Which of the following is an example of a closed system?
None of the above.
The Atlanta Hawks basketball team, Stanford University, the American Red Cross, and IBM are all examples of ____.
Open systems.
Kraft Foods has created five global product divisions (beverages, snacks, cheese and dairy, convenience meals, and grocery) and two marketing divisions (one for North America and the other for everything else). According to the systems approach to management, these seven divisions are examples of ____.
Subsystems.
Organizations operate in two kinds of complex environments. They are ____.
General and specific environments.
Which of the following would be a part of an organization’s general environment?
The economy in which it operates.
Which of the following would be a part of an organization’s specific environment?
Its competitors.
Which of the following statements describes an advantage of the systems approach to management?
All of these describe advantages of the systems approach to management.
According to ____, the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place.
The contingency approach.
Saturday, the manager of Tony’s Pizza had to deal with an employee with a hangover, a missing server, and an unusually large number of customers. Monday was a slow day, and another employee fell asleep behind the prep table. Both employees came to work not ready to work their hardest. According to the ____, the manager should not be expected to have treated these two workers identically.
Contingency approach to management.

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