Motivation & leading
Motivation/ leading are an all pervasive function in an organization. Planning and organizing the structure will be successful only if they are implemented for which leading is required. The leading implies motivating the persons concerned to execute the plans within in the organizational framework. Many of us have propensity to be leaders while others learn leadership and become effective leaders. It is not necessary that one should be outspoken and flamboyant to be a leader. Less articulate persons with other necessary skills are quite successful in leading.
Napoleon was a short man and Abraham Lincoln was an introvert. Yet they were successful leaders. In an organization, motivational and leadership qualities are found not only in managers but also in employees who work under them. “ In leading, managers determine direction, state a clear vision for employees to follow, and help employees understand the role they play in attaining goals. Leadership involves a manager using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.
The outcome of the leading function is a high level of motivation and commitment from employees to the organization. ” (http://www. csupomona. edu/~wcweber/301/301slide/ch01301/tsld011. htm) As per the concept of motivation/leading discussed above, by instinct or an involuntary action rather than as an artificial method, we tend to motivate people to work. Plus the workers and managers themselves are self motivated as they have to show results or do the performance if they should receive their remuneration.
It is the duty of the management to focus the efforts of the employees towards achieving the goals of the company. In large Star Hotels they have a separate department called Human Resource Development which recruits people for their respective positions in the company. In the restaurant business I shall have Human Resource manager as not less than 75 employees are proposed to be engaged. They will be sent for training before they take their positions. They are paid good salaries as a reward for their work for the Restaurant.
The salaries are fixed keeping in view of the cost of living commensurate with the paying capacity of the company. Bonuses are to be paid annually besides performance incentives along with the monthly salaries. There are also Hygiene and safety issues to be addressed in consultation with guidelines of U. S. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and also the matters relating to Teen Worker Safety in Restaurants. It is estimated that nearly 30% of 11. 6 million employees of Restaurants and other Eating places in the U. S.
is under 20 years of age. (http://www. osha. gov/SLTC/youth/restaur) Complying with all these requirements of safety goes a long way in motivating the employees besides enhancing the image of the Restaurant among the patrons. McDonald’s takes pride in saying “”At McDonald’s, our employees are the best advertisement we have for the tremendous potential we offer”(http://www. mcdonalds. com/usa/work/manage. html) Controlling We have now come to the last but not the least function of the management. If there is a planning there has to be a control.
In controlling, managers review how the organization is accomplishing its goals and resort to necessary steps to improve performance. They will monitor individuals, departments, and the organization to see if targeted performance has been achieved.. They will also initiate steps to enhance performance as thought fit.. The result of the controlling function is the accurate measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness. Having seen what controlling is, we shall now see how the Restaurant enterprise is controlling their persons and departments.
There are Budgets at the planning level for each department of Kitchen, quality control, purchases, sales, expenditures and the Head of the organization assisted by the managers looks for positive or negative variances from the budgeted figures. This is called budgetary control. This is one of the effective tools for controlling and directing performance of the Restaurant venture. Production Manager reviews whether it has achieved targeted production and studies if any difficulties in quality control in ordering release of the products have resulted in stagnated production preventing flow of further production.
And if the delay in release was due to time consuming testing procedures or due to poor quality of materials purchased. Whether procurement of sophisticated instruments like HPLC, Spectrophotometer would help achieving instant test results and improve quality and help avoid rejection at the consumers’ points if any. Similarly Sales Department reviews periodically if it has achieved budgeted sales and analyses positive or negative variances to take corrective actions. If the sales have increased, how to sustain it by deploying more working capital is to be decided.
Income and expenditure budgets ascertain whether actuals are resulting in profits or loss or lesser than anticipated profits and if so what is the expenditure that could be brought down. Controlling does not end with mere budgetary control alone. The control process is a cyclical process and never ends at a point. It results in identification of new problems that in turn need to be addressed through establishment of performance standards, measuring performance etc. (http://extension. osu. edu/~mgtexcel/Control. html)
Usually there will be change in the behavioral patterns of employees who resist to changes as a result of the controlling process. Game playing “like it is between me and my boss and I want to win “, Negative reaction to too much control, providing wrong information, sabotaging activities like pilfering, maligning other workers, driving the customers away, spreading rumors about the Restaurant in the community and playing one manager against another are few expected behaviors which the management should be ready face and tackle. Conclusion
What we have discussed is just an outline of the four management function with an empirical study of an imaginary business enterprise. Each function has sub functions and they are endless and differ from author to author and will always overlap And the four functions are interrelated and found in all the activities of management. That is any given activity would have gone through planning, organizing, motivation and control.
(http://www. csupomona. edu/~wcweber/301/301slide/ch01301/tsld011. htm)accessed on March 19 2006 (http://extension. osu. edu/~mgtexcel/Control. html accessed on March 19, 2006 (About_com. http://www_managementhelp. org /html accessed on 18 march 2006 http://mgtclass. mgt. unm. edu/DiGregorio/EMBA%20New%20Ventures%20Course/Clayton%20Christensen%20presentation. ppt. http://www. webstaurantstore. com/? src=overture accessed on March 20, 2006 http://www. osha. gov/SLTC/youth/restaur accessed on March 20, 2006 http://www. mcdonalds. com/usa/work/manage. html accessed on March 20. 2006 Taylor 1911. Principles of Scientific Management