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MSIS Chapter 9.1

Legacy System
an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization
Conversion
the process of transferring info from a legacy system to a new system
Software Customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
Off-the-self Application Software
supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organization’s needs
Systems Development Life Cycle
the overall process for developing info systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance; planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance
Planning Phase
establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals; most critical
Change Agent
a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
Brainstorming
a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period of time without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted
Project
a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
Project Management
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
Project Manager
an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure that the project is completed on time and on budget; responsible for executing the project and defining the project scope that links the project to organization’s goals
Project Scope
describes the business need (the problem the project will solve) and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
Project Plan
a formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project
Analysis Phase
the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
Business Requirements
the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful
Requirements Management
the process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project
Requirements Definition Document
prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
Sign-off
the users’ actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
Process Modeling
involves graphically representing the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute info between a system and its environment
Data Flow Diagram
illustrates the movement of info between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
Computer-aided Software Engineering
software suites that automate systems analysis, design, and development
Design Phase
establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudocode, and other documentation
Development Phase
transforms all the detailed design documents from the design phase into the actual system
Software Engineering
a disciplined approach for constructing info systems through the use of common methods, techniques or tools
Control Objects for Information and Related Technology
a set of basic practices that helps an organization maximize the benefits of an info system, at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
Scripting Language
a programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
Object-oriented Languages
group data and corresponding processes into objects
Fourth-generation Languages
programming languages that look similar to human languages
Testing Phase
brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
Bugs
defects in the code of an info system
Test Conditions
detail the steps the system must perform along with the expected result of each step
Implementation Phase
the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
User Documentation
created that highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems
Online Training
runs over the Internet or on a CD or DVD, and employees complete the training on their own time at their own pace
Workshop Training
held in a classroom environment and led by an instructor
Help Desk
a group of people who respond to users’ questions
Maintenance Phase
the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure that the system continues to meet business goals
Corrective Maintenance
makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues
Preventative Maintenance
makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure
Alpha Testing
assess if the entire system meets the design requirements of the users
Development Testing
test the system to ensure it is bug-free
Integration Testing
verify that separate systems can work together, passing data back and forth correctly
System Testing
verify that the units or pieces of code function correctly when integrated
User Acceptance Testing
determine if the system satisfies the user and business requirements
Unit Testing
test individual units or pieces of code for a system
Methodology
a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges
Parallel Implementation
uses both the legacy system and new system until all users verify that the new system functions correctly
Plunge Implementation
discards the legacy system and immediately migrates all users to the new system
Pilot Implementation
assigns a small group of people to use the new system until it is verified to work correctly; then the remaining users migrate to the new system
Phased Implementation
installs the new system in phases until it is verified to work correctly
Waterfall Methodology
a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
Prototyping
a modern design approach by which the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system
Discovery Prototyping
builds a small-scale representation or working model of the system to ensure that it meets the user and business requirements
Iterative Development
consists of a series of tiny projects
Agile Methodology
aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
Rapid Application Development Methodology
emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process; rapid prototyping
Extreme Programming Methodology
breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete; planning, designing, coding and testing
Rational Unified Process Methodology
owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
Prototype
a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an info system; essential part of analysis when using RAD methodology
Inception
gate one; this phase ensures that all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the proposed system and what it will do
Elaboration
gate two; expands on the agreed-upon details of the system, including the ability to provide an architecture to support and build it
Construction
gate three; building and developing the product
Transition
gate four; primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of key personnel
Scrum Methodology
uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
Service-oriented Architecture
a business-driven enterprise architecture that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable activities, tasks, or services
Service
a business task, such as checking a potential customer’s credit rating when opening a new account
Loose Coupling
the capability of services to be joined together on demand to create composite services, or disassembled just as easily into their functional component
Interoperability
the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers
Web Service
an open-standards way of supporting interoperability; application programming interfaces that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services
Extensible Markup Language
a markup language for documents, containing structured info

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