Municipal Organizational Culture
Studies in organization culture in the municipal government must in the first place be clear on types or subtypes that exit. Generally, the bigger culture is created by the municipal government leadership. In this creation, the leaders will most frequently start by setting the lines of communication that outline if certain behaviour is acceptable or not. According to Schein (1988) conformance along these parameters is a predictor of whether the individual workforce will survive it the organization such as a municipal government or not.
Previous research show that in many organizations, such as municipal government subculture are more prominent that the main culture. Then these subcultures are infused to the main culture as was researched by Loius, Posner and Powell, (1983). The three found out that subculture are easier to adopt because of the stage at which peers interact with their superior and co-workers. This interaction defines new acculturation rules from the external to internal work environment.
John van Maanan and Steven Barley (1984) carried out studies on cultural interpersonal relations at work environment. They concluded that this process is both cognitive and behavioural, with the new workforce getting cultural mentorship from the older workforce in aspects like identities and norms. Sonja Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161) validated these findings by focusing on these subcultures. Sackmann established that the organizational functional departments are the roots of the workforce knowledge and curtails their actions and reactions. Sackmann (1992, p.
140-161) noted that most organizations have dressing culture, perceptions or differentiation between the management and general workforce, whereby the work environment was conspicuously distinct. Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161) noted that variation in subcultures caused the general workers in organizations to break from work at different times as well as define how they speak with each other. According to Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161), variations of organizational culture and subculture in places like municipal government define how workforce rate job security, size of company and access to basic workforce rights.
The same variation defines how workforce views time of work, complexity of facility and empowerment to work process. Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161) also revealed that culture in organizations just like municipal government defined how lower workforce views each other, the expansion of the organization and their strategy, expansion process ownership, quality service delivery and teamwork. According to Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161) study, the senior leadership culture is normally on expansion of the organization and people focus.
Thus Sackmann (1992, p. 140-161) concluded and proposed that organizational leadership, just like municipal government, should focus on cultural transformation and embrace the existing subculture with robust communication network for overall success. According to a past study by Trice (1988), there is no denial this far, that a good cultural understanding of the organization, just like the municipal government, will enable smooth transformation for the leaders to meet the mission and vision.
This has implications that the municipal government leadership is capable of seeing all cultures in their organization and should embrace the dynamics for success. Past studies by Schein (1988), came up with five organizational culture management resolutions that are very relevant to municipal government. First, culture should be simplified and distinguished from work environment and philosophy, because it defines these factors in the first place. Therefore a process of culture change should be informed of the accompanying values.
Second, Schein (1988) noted that leaders should not see culture as a human end rather than a means to achieve the missions and visions. Third, Schein (1988) noted that leaders should stop controlling culture as this is the prerogative of the organization members. In fact, if an organization culture is very strong, the leaders should be able to feel it. Fourth, Schein (1988) noted that organizational leaders like in municipal government should be aware that there is no good culture or classify its strength in preference for a weak one.
What is important is the value that it adds to the organization in meeting its mission and vision. Fifth, Schein (1988) noted that leaders should not be believed that every culture in the organization adds value. Many subcultures are counterproductive and it is upon the leaders to work with what delivers the mission and goals. In a very recent study, Catherine R. Runnalls (2007), investigated the impact of culture from a municipal cultural dimension in British Columbia and Ontario. The research methodology focused on a framework of municipal issues, plans, collaboration, resource allocation and trends.
The study concluded that many factors affect municipal prosperity from a cultural point of view and prevent the attainment of their goals. But the growing awareness of culture in the municipal government was a good development in attaining the organizational goals in the short and long term. Runnalls (2007), literature review established that municipal culture of leadership must embrace culture and innovation as part of their daily planning. This has implications that cultural change, when necessary, will be inevitable for the benefit of all stakeholders.
Runnalls (2007) summarized the study by highlighting key issues of culture in municipal government. The focus groups and interview were unanimous that; first there is no comprehensive approach of cultural management that can satisfy all the stake holders. Second, the study established that culture is yet to be embraced in the municipal government and the existing level of misunderstanding is causing serious rifts. Third, Runnalls (2007), established that municipal government must start mapping assets along cultural approach in order to realize full growth and development after resource planning.
Fourth, as much as modern world cultural management approach such as creativity and risk allocation are applied, the municipal government is yet to embrace this process. Fifth, Runnalls (2007), realised that municipal governments have little respect and recognition of culture and its potential impact on the normal planning process. Sixth, most municipal government never integrate culture in their operations. Seventh, it will require some form of legislation for most of the municipal government to accept the implementation of cultural planning and management.
Finally, Runnalls (2007) noted that if there is collaboration between various cultures of stakeholders in the municipal government, the service levels will improve. Therefore, Runnalls (2007) very recent study recommended that culture must be understood for the prosperity and sustainability of the municipal government. There is need to widen the stakeholders cultural inclusion for the success of the municipal government. (Runnalls, 2007). There is need for research in cultural management to be followed with legislative implementation in the municipal government. (Runnalls, 2007).
There is need for cultural education in the municipal government so that culture is ingrained as a discipline for decision making in the municipal government. (Runnalls, 2007). There is need for municipal governments to take advantage of the rich and productive culture of their workforce to expand on their professional capabilities. (Runnalls, 2007). Municipal government can be creative in their application of cultural rewards and benefits to their employees so that they are motivated to optimize productivity and have smooth interpersonal communication. (Runnalls, 2007)