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My Systems Analysis Ch. 11

When evaluating a system, which of the following is not necessary for a systems analyst to do?
Use interviews to gather information and opinions from a large number of users
In a structure chart, a(n) ____ line, which has a diamond on one end, indicates that a control module determines which subordinate modules will be invoked.
Using flowcharts, programmers can break large systems into subsystems that are easier to understand and code.
____ requires that a software supplier document all testing and maintain records of test results.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
Systems analysts prepare overall documentation, such as process descriptions and report layouts, early in the SDLC.
A systems analyst prepares most of the systems documentation during the systems analysis and systems design phases.
As the accompanying figure illustrates, the ____ changeover method requires that both the old and the new information systems operate fully for a specific period.
parallel operation
Unless a problem must be corrected, or modifications or enhancements must be made, access to the operational environment is limited to ____ and must be strictly controlled.
If a module must perform multiple tasks, ____.
less complex coding is required
When developing a training program, which of the following guidelines should be kept in mind?
provide for learning by hearing, seeing, and doing
User documentation ____.
consists of instructions and information to users who will interact with the system
The testing of an individual module is called ____ testing.
In a structure chart, a curved arrow represents a ____, which indicates that one or more modules are repeated.
Software ____ is a software development process that stresses solid design, effective structure, accurate documentation, and careful testing.
____ describes the degree of interdependence among modules.
____ graphically represent the logical rules and interaction between program modules using a series of symbols connected by arrows.
Modules that are independent are tightly coupled.
To achieve better, faster, and less expensive methods of software development, ____ designed the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), which improves quality, reduces development time, and cuts costs.
SEI (Software Engineering Institute)
____ is the process of reviewing the program code to spot logic errors, which produce incorrect results.
Desk checking
Post-implementation evaluation primarily is concerned with assessing the quality of a new system.
Structure charts are based on the DFDs constructed during data and process modeling and object models that might have been developed.
Restricting the implementation to a pilot site increases the risk of system failure, compared with a direct cutover method, and operating both systems for only the pilot site is more expensive than a parallel operation for the entire company.
Although programmers perform the actual coding, IT managers usually assign systems analysts to work with them as part of a team.
In a(n) ____ approach, the systems analyst documents the system’s requirements and then breaks them down into subsystems and modules.
As the accompanying figure illustrates, the ____ changeover method involves implementing the complete new system at a selected location of the company.
pilot operation
Effective online documentation is an important productivity tool because it empowers users and reduces the time that IT staff members must spend in providing telephone, e-mail, or face-to-face assistance.
At the end of the systems implementation phase, the final report to management should include ____.
final versions of all system documentation
a comparison of actual costs and schedules to the original estimates
planned modifications and enhancements to the system that have been identified
User documentation includes ____.
program, systems analyst, programmer, and system identification
A class diagram includes the class ____, which represent the program logic.
As the accompanying figure illustrates, the ____ approach causes the changeover from the old system to the new system to occur immediately when the new system becomes operational.
direct cutover
The post-implementation evaluation verifies that a new system meets specified requirements, complies with user objectives, and produces the anticipated benefits.
To minimize the need to require information from two different systems, cyclical information systems usually are converted using the direct cutover method at the beginning of a quarter, calendar year, or fiscal year.
Data conversion is easier when the new system replaces a manual system, because all data can be entered manually, unless it must be scanned.
Most Webinars are Web-based broadcasts that allow a user to download multimedia files to a PC or portable device.
Application ____ is the process of constructing the programs and code modules that serves as the building blocks of an information system.
____ cutover involves more risk than other changeover methods.
During ____ testing, programmers must test programs that interact with other programs and files individually, before they are integrated into the system.
In a technique called ____ testing, the programmer simulates each program outcome or result and displays a message to indicate whether or not the program executed successfully.
In a top-down design, the overall objectives of a system are broken down into ____ in a process called partitioning.
A Web site for the ____ describes a variety of IT education and training resources.
Center for the Application of Information Technologies (CAIT)
Many organizations require a more formal type of desk checking called a structured walkthrough, or ____ review.
Operations documentation ____.
contains all the information needed for processing and distributing online and printed output
A class diagram includes the class ____, which describe the characteristics of objects in the class.
Errors found during a structured walkthrough are harder to fix.
The objective of ____ testing is to identify and eliminate execution errors that could cause a program to terminate abnormally, and logic errors that could have been missed during desk checking.
The skill set required to develop documentation usually is the same as that to develop a system.
In addition to analyzing logic and program code, a project team usually holds a session with users, called a ____ walkthrough, to review the interface with a cross-section of people who will work with the new system and ensure that all the necessary features have been included.
Post-implementation evaluations are optional for most information systems projects.
If one module refers to internal logic contained in another module, the modules are loosely coupled.
In sequence, the four steps typically followed to create a structure chart are ____.
review the DFDs; identify modules and relationships; add couples, loops, and conditions; analyze the structure chart and the data dictionary
Whenever possible, people who were not directly involved in developing a system should conduct the post-implementation evaluation.
Program documentation ____.
describes the inputs, outputs, and processing logic for all program modules
A module that performs a single function or task has a high degree of ____, which is desirable.
As the accompanying figure illustrates, the ____ changeover method allows the new system to be implemented in stages, or modules.
phased operation
Podcasts can be prescheduled, made available on demand, or delivered as automatic updates.
Parallel operation is the least costly changeover method.
Systems analysts use application generators, report writers, screen generators, fourth-generation languages, and other CASE tools that produce code directly from program design specifications.
In a structure chart, a control couple shows a message, also called a status ____, which one module sends to another.
The test environment for an information system contains ____.
[None Given]
Which of the following is not specified by the detailed procedures in a test plan?
What the rate of the forward engineering will be
Phased operation is more expensive than full parallel operation because the entire system must be worked with at one time.
Successful completion of system testing is the key to user and management approval, which is why system tests sometimes are called ____.
acceptance tests
In a(n) ____ approach, the systems analyst documents the system’s requirements and then breaks them down into subsystems and modules.
Using a ____ strategy, knowledgeable users can be selected who then conduct sessions for others.
To draw a structure chart, working from a logical model the systems analyst transforms program modules into functional primitives and object methods.
In ____ programming, two programmers work on the same task on the same computer.
Compiling a program using a CASE tool or a language compiler detects syntax errors, which are language grammar errors.

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