____ is a coding method used on most personal computers.
In the accompanying figure, any field that could serve as a primary key is called a ____.
The complete definition of a database, including descriptions of all fields, tables, and relationships, is called a(n) ____.
____ codes combine data from different item attributes, or characteristics, to build the code.
A data ____ language controls database operations, including storing, retrieving, updating, and deleting data.
To resolve potential database connectivity and access problems, companies use ODBC-compliant software that enables communication among various systems and DBMSs.
Most date formats now are based on the model established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which requires a format of ____.
four digits for the year, two for the month, and two for the day (YYYYMMDD)
A(n) ____ is a graphical model of an information system that depicts the logical relationships and interaction among system entities.
A data warehouse allows users to specify certain dimensions, or characteristics.
A(n) ____, which is used to access stored data, allows a user to specify a task without specifying how the task will be accomplished.
In the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field or combination of fields that uniquely and minimally identifies a particular member of an entity.
JDBC enables ____ applications to exchange data with any database that uses SQL statements and is compliant with the standard.
In the event of a file catastrophe, ____ can be used to restore the file or database to its current state at the time of the last backup.
EBCDIC and ASCII both require ____ bits.
A repeating group is a set of one or more fields that can occur only once in a single record, with each occurrence having the same value.
A common field is an attribute that appears in only one entity.
Like a primary key, a foreign key must be unique.
The three normal forms constitute a progression in which the first normal form represents the best design.
____ means that a system can be expanded, modified, or downsized easily to meet the rapidly changing needs of a business enterprise.
In the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field in one table that must match a primary key value in another table in order to establish the relationship between the two tables.
One common method of indicating ____ is called crow’s foot notation because of the shapes, which include circles, bars, and symbols that indicate various possibilities.
Normal forms beyond 3NF exist, but they rarely are used in business-oriented systems.
JDBC is the language of the Web.
Unicode represents more than ____ unique, multilingual characters.
____ is a coding method used on mainframe computers and high-capacity servers.
To bridge the gap between a database and the Web and enable data to be viewed and updated, it is necessary to use ____, which is software that integrates different applications and allows them to exchange data.
A table design is in second normal form (2NF) if it is in 1NF and if all fields that are not part of the primary key are functionally independent on part of the primary key.
____ is an industry-standard protocol that makes it possible for software from different vendors to interact and exchange data.
Which of the following is a data coding and storage scheme?
In a client/server system, processing is isolated in a single computer.
To protect stored data, users can be asked to furnish a proper user ID and password to access a file or database.
A ____ is a set of letters or numbers that represents a data item.
____ is the process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access to the data.
Many three-character airport codes are cipher codes.
During the systems design phase, ____ fields are used to organize, access, and maintain data structures.
n the accompanying figure, a ____ is a field in one table that must match a primary key value in another table in order to establish the relationship between the two tables.
With a(n) ____ language, the user provides an example of the data requested.
____ codes are numbers or letters assigned in a specific order.
An integer format uses ____ bits to represent the number 12,345 in binary form.
Field X is functionally dependent on field Y if the value of field X depends on the value of field Y.
A data ____, which is a framework for organizing and storing data, consists of one or more files or tables.
A ____ contains data about people, places, things, or events.
Some abbreviation codes are called ____ codes because they use a specific combination of letters that are easy to remember.
A table design is in third normal form (3NF) if it is in 2NF and if all nonkey fields are dependent on other nonkey fields.
____ describes how instances of one entity relate to instances of another entity.
In an M:N relationship, the two entities are linked by an event or transaction called an associative entity, which has its own set of attributes and characteristics.
Many database programs generate ____, which is a language that allows client workstations to communicate with servers and mainframe computers.
Which of the following is a problem found with 1NF (first normal form) design that does not exist in 2NF (second normal form)?
2NF tables always contain consistent data compared to 1NF tables
Middleware can interpret client requests in HTML form and translate the requests into commands that the database can execute.
A table design that does not contain repeating groups is called unnormalized.
A table is in first normal form (1NF) if it contains a repeating group.
Which of the following is the advantage of a DBMS (database management system)?
economy of scale
One type of validity check, called ____ integrity, is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency and quality problems.
Compared with character-based formats, a ____ storage format offers a more efficient storage method.
A(n) ____ is a collection of tools, features, and interfaces that enable users to add, update, manage, access, and analyze the contents of data.
Binary digits have only ____ possible value(s).
Security concerns about Web-based data design can be addressed with software that can protect the system and detect intrusion, for example.
Any field that is not a primary key or a candidate key is called a ____ key.
When a primary key combines two or more fields, it is called a ____ key.
A long integer format uses ____ bits to represent the number 1,234,567,890 in binary form.
Migrating a traditional database design to the Web rarely requires design modification or additional software.
In a table or file, each column represents a record, which is an individual instance, or occurrence of an entity, and each row represents a field, or characteristic of the entity.
Web-based systems are popular because they offer ease of access, cost-effectiveness, and worldwide connectivity.
A popular rule of thumb is that a design is in 3NF if every nonkey field depends on the key, the whole key, and nothing but the key.
____ is the process of creating table designs by assigning specific fields or attributes to each table in a database.
The basic elements of logical storage are alphabetic or numeric characters, such as the letter A or the number 9.
Web-based data design requires users to have powerful workstations.
Web-based data must be secure but in order to be so, it cannot be easily accessible to authorized users.
In ASCII, the number 1,234,567,890 requires ____ bytes of storage.
A primary key cannot be composed of more than one field.
Three main types of relationships that can exist between entities are a one-to-one relationship, abbreviated 1:1; a one-to-many relationship, abbreviated 1:M; and a many-to-many relationship, abbreviated M:N.
In an entity-relationship diagram, entities are represented as ____.
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