Negative effects of Globalization
The concept of globalization can be traced back to the 1800s. Between the year 1870 and 1913 there was a remarkable rise in trade amongst countries in the world followed by the streaming of resources and labor. Currently there is another wave that begun in 1950 which has brought about an improvement in technology as the barriers get reduced and thus speeding up the switch over. Various approaches have been advanced to define globalization.
One of the approaches is the hyper globalist approach which stipulates that entry into the global age involves victory over capitalism in the world and the arrival of different cultures, governments and the humanitarian organizations. According to this approach, the state is seen to be at its downfall and thus leading to lack of achievement in education as the nations’ culture fail to be achieved. The second approach is the skeptical approach which argues that globalization will not have a negative impact on the state instead it will help the state deal with the crisis of capitalism.
However this does not mean that globalization has not brought inequalities in the developing countries. Another advanced way of looking at globalization is an approach known as the transformation lists which
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In the developing countries owners of small scale businesses don’t have the capacity to improve their technology. Multinational corporations and developed countries are advantaged as compared to small business owners in the third world countries who cannot develop their businesses beyond their country’s boundaries. Everyday new advances in technology are made in the world and it is costly to make rapid changes as well as share this technology with the world.
Majority of the countries in the world cannot meet the expense of the most recent technological knowhow and by the time they are about to meet the expense of the new technology a new discovery pops up. The democracy involved in technology can therefore be seen as it only benefits the richer nations and the richer companies (Harrison, 2007). Through technology a company or a nation is able to get wide coverage in the world and become successful through the influence created. In this case an investor spends a lot in technology leading to an increase in company’s profits.
Due to improvement in technology there is a need to settle deals as a company is assured of getting charges that are reasonable. For example, a company like Swissair based in Switzerland took its accounting division in India as India has the best accountants in the world and labor there was cheap thus giving them an added advantage. This was made possible by virtue of the information being transmitted in the world through advanced technology. Countries that are not fully advanced in technology are disadvantaged in terms of lack of investment from foreign companies which are not willing to incur an extra cost by investing in infrastructure.
This has led to high unemployment rates as there are few companies which have invested in countries with poor infrastructure this then translates to an increase in poor people as there are no enough job opportunities. Technological advancement has been of great importance to rich countries while on the other hand it has hampered the growth of economy in the third world. Foreign firms pay workers in poor countries salaries that are lower than the companies’ home country (James, 2002).
Multinational Corporations are rivals of domestic companies since they create jobs faster than the domestic firms and the profits in the foreign firms are sent back to the home country plunging the country into more poverty. Majority of the third world countries have been plunged into deep poverty as a result of developed economies like the US which develop at the expense of third world countries. Trade and industry incorporation plus alliances created by the developed countries has led to the triumph of globalization. Trade alliances only benefit the rich countries.
The spread of globalization has been spread by customs union, free trade, economic unions and common markets which have slowed the growth of developing countries not in this group. Effects of globalization on development Globalization has both negative effects and positive effects in terms of development. The positive effects include enrichment of the rich countries while on the other hand the poor countries continue being poor a factor that leads to slow pace in development. Globalization directly affects development policies as it touches on economic and social structures of individual countries and international division of labor.
Globalization has a negative effect on the third world development whereby brain-drain has been experienced due to free movement throughout the world professionals in various fields who go abroad to look for greener pastures (United nations Staff, 2002). This is due to the poor working conditions in the developing countries which leads to underdevelopment in the poor countries since this professionals cannot use their knowledge to develop their home countries instead they use it abroad. Globalization has a positive effect on development through employment of workers in the third world countries by outsourcing (Reinert, 2004).
Effects of globalization on the environment Development in the world has led to pollution thereby leading to global warming an issue that needs to be addressed by all countries in the world and hence globalization comes into play in dealing with environmental issues. There have been counter accusations between the developing countries and the developed countries which accuse each other of causing pollution in the world. A conflict on who is to take the blame for environmental degradation is thriving as the third world countries argue that the blame for the increasing degradation in the world.
The developing nations on the other hand want to reduce their rates of pollution. Change in the climatic globally has been accused of increasing the rates of tropical diseases. These diseases are mainly brought about by insects which host these diseases. The commonality in these diseases is that they spread in countries where these insects thrive in hot climates. As the world heats up insects can survive in uninhabitable areas and so countries that are very cold could experience tropical diseases.
According to World Health Organization the tropical diseases account for the most severe diseases which are about 250 million in total that lead eight hundred and eighty thousand deaths a year (Lofdahl, 2002). Global human rights and their contribution to peace Supporters of globalization agree that human rights are not respected and so do the critics who claim that globalization has had an effect on human rights. Critics of globalization compare human rights issues with other issues of human rights poverty or debt crisis, lack of jobs is also compared to privatization and also comparing poor health with the domination of medicine patents.
Human rights have been implemented in countries of the north and the south due to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 signed by majority of the countries in the world. The human rights issues concerned include the cultural, social and economic spheres which are implemented through introduction of policies whereby subsidies have been introduced in sectors such as sanitation, culture, health care service, housing food and education (Forsythe, 2006).
Agreements on globalization have had negative effects on the south which includes deprivation of basic rights like the right to development. This is because economic policies of the developed countries differ with the policies put in place by international organizations like WTO. These policies include free- market policy which gives the multi- national corporations an unfair advantage over the domestic companies in the third world countries they invested in.
The consequence of this is that rich continue getting richer while the poor become poorer due to the violation of human rights. Statistically more than 3 billion people in the world live on less than a dollar a day. Deprivation of this economic rights leads to political and social turmoil. According to Mary Robinson Multinational Corporations should be held responsible when they abuse human rights as stipulated in the Universal Human Rights Declaration and should make maintenance of human rights issues their number one priority in the course of their operation (Donnelly, 2003).
Conclusion Globalization can be said to be double edged sword which benefits some people at the expense of others. The negative effects of globalization have led to the emergence of anti-globalists who are against the notion of globalization. Despite their criticism of globalization they have not managed to come up with an alternative solution of globalization. In order to deal with the negative effects of globalization a better idea of globalization should be adopted.
Policies should be made in the international organizations so as to uphold human rights and they should be made in such a way that the policies formulated are not contradictory to the signatories of these organizations. Bibliography Donnelly, J 2003, Universal human rights in theory and practice, New York: Cornell University Press. Forsythe, D 2006, Human rights in international relations, New York: Cambridge University Press. Harrison, A 2007, Globalization and poverty, London: University of Chicago Press.
James, J 2002, Technology, globalization and poverty, New York, Edward Elgar Publishing. Lofdahl, C 2002, Environmental impacts of globalization and trade: a systems study, New York: MIT Press. Reinert, E 2004, Globalization, economic development: an alternative perspective, New York: Edward Elgar Publishing. Scholte, J 2000, Globalization: a critical introduction, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. United Nations Staff, 2002, Globalization and Development, USA: United Nations Publications.