Nursing Leadership & Management: Exam 1
Problem-solving and critical-thinking skills
Examples: New ideas about health care delivery, Expansion, New ways of delivering supplies.
Examples: Costs, Demands for quality, New laws or requirements for care providers.
-Knowledge of process
-Driving forces are those that move the target toward change. (Moving forward)
-Status Quo is maintained when driving forces equal restraining forces.
-Organizational culture can be either restraining or driving force.
-Emulative: through identification with power figures. Lead by example.
-Empirical-Rational: When people see changes as beneficial to their personal interest.
-Socialization: When one conforms to needs of a social group.
-Power-Coercive: Person in power orders change.
-Normative-Re-educative: Occurs when values, attitudes, skills and important relationships change.
-Forms of mutual goal setting
-Technocratic: through data collection and analysis.
-Wish to improve self
-Wish to conform to group
-Desire to improve care
-Wish to be seen as cooperative
-Organizational culture that rewards complacency
-Fear of failure
-Unfreezing: Weakening the bounds that support present system; either strengthening the driving forces or weakening the restraining forces. Can be something as simple as creating dissatisfaction, such as a union does. This is easier when there already is turmoil.
-Movement: When the change takes place.
-Re-freezing: Making change permanent fixture; can be hastened by support and rewards.
-To fight, battle, contend, to be antagonistic, incompatible, or contradictory or in opposition, clash, to battle.
-The process itself is neutral.
-Can be interpersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, latent or overt; vertical or horizontal.
-Role conflict: often when two or more people have the same or related responsibilities with ambiguous boundaries.
-Rivalry: two people wanting the same thing.
-Communication conflict: Failing to communicate with another.
-Goal conflict: when achievement is thwarted and one person puts their interest over another.
-Personality conflict: Cynicism, short fuses, arrogance.
-Ethical or values of conflict: Often is over goal versus process.
Win-Win; Win-Lose; Lose-Lose
-Compromise/ Negotiating (Lose-Lose): Minimum losses and gains; appropriate at times.
-Competition/ Forcing (Win-Lose): Rarely appropriate
-Accommodation/Smoothing (Win-Lose): Surrendering; appropriate at times.
-Collaboration/ Problem Solving (Win-Win): Work toward common goals and consensus. Time consuming and requires that everyone is willing to come to the table.
-Group cohesion may increase as individuals work together to resolve conflict.
-New leadership may emerge.
-Results can be constructive and impetus for change.
-Can result in individual growth and development.
-Increase communication and improve understanding of how the facility functions.
-Can increase motivation
-Disputants pull others into conflict
-Unresolved conflict causes alienation, violence
-Disputants scapegoat a peripheral group member
-Start choosing sides
-If not resolved they will recur
-Do not use inflammatory language
-Create homogenous groups
-Reduce status difference (level them, co-leaders)
-Reduce communication distortions
– Increase resources and rewards
-Increase meaningful interaction
-Superordinate goals: bring people together to accomplish goal.
-Perceived: Cognitive awareness of stress.
-Manifest: Overt behavior resulting from antecedent, perceived/felt conflict
-Constructive or destructive
2) Phase of conflict development
3)Seriousness of disagreement
*Note: The assessment is important; the manager doesn’t intervene unless the conflict is causing loss of productivity, endangers safety, or causes other major issues, the management must intervene.
-Issue importance: the extent to which important priorities, principles or values are involved in the conflict.
-Relationship importance- how important it is that you maintain a close, mutually supportive relationship with the other party.
-Relative Power: how much power you have compared to how much power other party has.
-Take responsibility for self and own participation
-Listen actively (clarify, paraphrases)
-Sort out issues
-Identify key themes
Clarify the needs of both-Both identify perspectives and needs; theirs first; avoid premature problem solving.
Confirm understanding – summarize and clarify needs of all
Offer options-Involve other party in searching for best possible list of alternatives
Reach agreement- Select a few options acceptable to both and mentally/ verbally test each.
Determine appropriate next steps- Work out an implementation plan and time frame to revisit. Acknowledge progress.
*Not all managers are leaders.
-Encompasses more area
-Deals with influence over others behaviors
-Require competence in diagnosing, adapting, and communicating.
-Have followers by virtue of personal characteristics
-Deals with organizational goals
-Requires technical, human, and conceptual skills
-Authority by virtue of position
-Getting work done through others
-Organizing: Mobilizing human and material resources in order to achieve objectives. For example: determining how much staff on each shift
-Directing: Motivating, leading, instructing personnel to carry out action needed to achieve objectives. For example, instructing staff to take ER admissions immediately.
-Controlling: Comparing results with predetermined standards of performance and taking corrective action when indicated. For example: budget, performance appraisals, quality improvement initiatives.
-Managing emotions, self regulation.
-Motivating self and others
-Social or people skills.
-Referent: People will follow those they admire/like.
-Reward: raises, good assignments, recognition.
-Coercive: threats of punishments
-Expert: specialized knowledge and skills
-Informational: when other want/need your information
-Connection: who do you work with, who you know
-Motivational: ability to inspire and work toward a goal.
-Emphasized that a person is either born with or without the necessary traits of a leader.
-Leader is charismatic
-Commanding personality, charm, courage, intelligence, persuasiveness, aggressiveness.
– Vroom and Yetton’s
-Task structure is ability to define task and measure progress toward it (or number of correction solutions)
-Position power to use rewards and punishments
-Leader motivates others through vision, shared values, and empowerment.
-Have better performance ratings and make a better contribution to the organization
-Not a solution, at times is inappropriate
-Get a mentor: usually someone who is on your level but with more experience, tenure, or one step higher in the organization.
-Keep an open mind, be flexible
-Continue to learn and grow
-Believe in yourself
-Treat others with respect and consideration
Should be based on standard, be objective, applied employee’s work and is trained in the use of the tool and components should be known in advanced by employee.
Should be done regularly but often are not because both the employee and manager get stresses by appraisal.
In nursing we use nursing standards in addition to the job description for performance appraisal.
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