logo image

Nursing Leadership & Management: Exam 1

Leader (Book)
Person who demonstrates and excursuses influence and power over others.
Manager (Book)
The person with accountability for a group of people.
Transformation Leadership (Book)
An act of encouraging followers to follow the leaders style and change their interest with concern for a broader goal.
Transactional Leadership (Book)
The act of using rewards and punishments as a part of the daily oversight of employees in seeking to get the group to accomplish a task.
Transformation Leaders (ATI)
Empower followers to assume responsibility for a communal vision, and personal development is a secondary outcome.
Transactional Leaders (ATI)
Focus on immediate problems, maintaining the status quo and using rewards to motivate followers.
Characteristics of Leaders ( ATI)
Positive Attitude
Communication skills
Problem-solving and critical-thinking skills
Leadership Styles (ATI)
Authoritative, Democratic, Laissez-faire
Authoritative (ATI)
Makes decisions for the group. Motivates by coercion. Communication occurs down the chain of command. Work output by staff is usually high: good for crisis situations and bureaucratic settings. Effective for employees with little or no formal education.
Democratic (ATI)
Includes the group when decisions are made. Motivates by supporting staff achievements. Communication occurs up and down the chain of command. Work output by staff is usually of good quality. Good when cooperation and collaboration are necessary.
Laissez-faire (ATI)
Makes very few decisions, and does little planning. Motivations largely the responsibility of individual staff members. Communication occurs up and down the chain of command and between group members. Work output is low unless an informal leader evolves from the group. Effective with professional employees.
Change (Powerpoint)
A significant disruption in established patterns of behavior and/ or expectations.
Change is…..
It’s constant and inevitable. It can be planned or unplanned. How it’s managed will be the key in determining success.
Change agents (Book)
Individuals with formal or informal legitimate power whose purpose is to initiate, champion, and direct or guide change.
Internal Change/ Internal Forces (Powerpoint)
Occurs from within the individual or individual organization.
Examples: New ideas about health care delivery, Expansion, New ways of delivering supplies.
External Change/ External Forces (Powerpoint)
Originate outside the person or organization.
Examples: Costs, Demands for quality, New laws or requirements for care providers.
Change Agent (Powerpoint)
Person responsible for leading change effort. Example: Nurse Manager.
Change Target (Powerpoint)
Who/what is to be changed: Think of this as who has the power to make decisions related to whatever it is your trying to change, or whose attitude do you need to change?
Knowledge of Process for Planned Change
-Assessing: Force Field Analysis
Planed Change Requires……
-Change Agent
-Change Target
-Knowledge of process
Force Field Analysis (Lewin)
-Restraining Forces are those aspects of the organization that keep change from happening. (Holding back)
-Driving forces are those that move the target toward change. (Moving forward)
-Status Quo is maintained when driving forces equal restraining forces.
-Organizational culture can be either restraining or driving force.
Equilibrium (personal emotions process through change)
Feelings of peace, blanche, harmony.
Denial (personal emotions process through change)
Denies changes will occur, may experience negative changes in health.
Anger (personal emotions process through change)
Blames others; may demonstrate envy, rage, resentment.
Bargaining (personal emotions process through change)
Tries to eliminate change “If only talk”
Chaos (personal emotions process through change)
Diffused energy, feelings of powerfulness, insecurity, disorientation.
Depression (personal emotions process through change)
No energy left, nothing seems to work, sorrow, self pity, feelings of emptiness.
Resignation (personal emotions process through change)
Lack of enthusiasm as change is accepted passively.”You give in”
Openness (personal emotions process through change)
Some renewal of energy and willingness to take on new roles or assignments as result of change.
Readiness (personal emotions process through change)
Willingly expends energy to explore new events reunification of emotions and cognition.
Re-emergence (personal emotions process through change)
Feelings of empowerment as new project are initiated.
Ways Change Happens
-Naturally: accidents, acts of God: when not deliberate
-Emulative: through identification with power figures. Lead by example.
-Empirical-Rational: When people see changes as beneficial to their personal interest.
-Socialization: When one conforms to needs of a social group.
-Power-Coercive: Person in power orders change.
-Normative-Re-educative: Occurs when values, attitudes, skills and important relationships change.
-Forms of mutual goal setting
-Technocratic: through data collection and analysis.
Examples of Driving Forces
-Pressure from manager
-Wish to improve self
-Wish to conform to group
-Desire to improve care
-Wish to be seen as cooperative
Examples of Restraining Forces
-Organizational culture that rewards complacency
-To prestige
-Economic threat
-Fear of failure
Lewin’s Change Theory Stages
-Unfreezing: Weakening the bounds that support present system; either strengthening the driving forces or weakening the restraining forces. Can be something as simple as creating dissatisfaction, such as a union does. This is easier when there already is turmoil.
-Movement: When the change takes place.
-Re-freezing: Making change permanent fixture; can be hastened by support and rewards.
-Recognized as the existence of real or perceived differences within an individual or between two or more individuals , or groups, is a clash between hostile or opposing parties.
-To fight, battle, contend, to be antagonistic, incompatible, or contradictory or in opposition, clash, to battle.
-The process itself is neutral.
Causes of Conflict in Nursing
-Differing values, interests, goals, needs, or approaches.
-Can be interpersonal, interpersonal, intergroup, latent or overt; vertical or horizontal.
-Role conflict: often when two or more people have the same or related responsibilities with ambiguous boundaries.
-Rivalry: two people wanting the same thing.
-Communication conflict: Failing to communicate with another.
-Goal conflict: when achievement is thwarted and one person puts their interest over another.
-Personality conflict: Cynicism, short fuses, arrogance.
-Ethical or values of conflict: Often is over goal versus process.
Conflict Resolution
Win-Win; Win-Lose; Lose-Lose
-Avoidance/Withdrawing (Lose-Lose): Withdrawing from situation; appropriate at times.

-Compromise/ Negotiating (Lose-Lose): Minimum losses and gains; appropriate at times.

-Competition/ Forcing (Win-Lose): Rarely appropriate

-Accommodation/Smoothing (Win-Lose): Surrendering; appropriate at times.

-Collaboration/ Problem Solving (Win-Win): Work toward common goals and consensus. Time consuming and requires that everyone is willing to come to the table.

Possible Positive Outcomes of Conflict
-Issues are brought into the open where they can be resolved and avert a more serious issue.
-Group cohesion may increase as individuals work together to resolve conflict.
-New leadership may emerge.
-Results can be constructive and impetus for change.
-Can result in individual growth and development.
-Increase communication and improve understanding of how the facility functions.
-Can increase motivation
Potential Undesirable Effect of Conflict
-Contention(heated disagreement) spreads to peripheral issues
-Disputants pull others into conflict
-Unresolved conflict causes alienation, violence
-Disputants scapegoat a peripheral group member
-Start choosing sides
-If not resolved they will recur
Minimizing Conflict
-Mutual trust
-Do not use inflammatory language
-Create homogenous groups
-Reduce status difference (level them, co-leaders)
-Reduce communication distortions
-Reduce interdependence
– Increase resources and rewards
-Increase meaningful interaction
-Superordinate goals: bring people together to accomplish goal.
Conflict Phases
-Latent Antecedent conditions are present and predict conflict
-Perceived: Cognitive awareness of stress.

-Manifest: Overt behavior resulting from antecedent, perceived/felt conflict

-Constructive or destructive

Conflict Assessment
1) Type of conflict
2) Phase of conflict development
3)Seriousness of disagreement

*Note: The assessment is important; the manager doesn’t intervene unless the conflict is causing loss of productivity, endangers safety, or causes other major issues, the management must intervene.

Variables important to choice of strategy
-Time pressure: is an important variable-if there were never any time pressures, collaboration might always be the best approach to use.

-Issue importance: the extent to which important priorities, principles or values are involved in the conflict.

-Relationship importance- how important it is that you maintain a close, mutually supportive relationship with the other party.

-Relative Power: how much power you have compared to how much power other party has.

Conflict Resolution via Collaboration
-Deal with issues not personalities
-Take responsibility for self and own participation
-Listen actively (clarify, paraphrases)
-Sort out issues
-Identify key themes
-Weigh consequences
ACCORD- Conflict Resolution Process
Agree to collaborate- Agree to work together and resolve.

Clarify the needs of both-Both identify perspectives and needs; theirs first; avoid premature problem solving.

Confirm understanding – summarize and clarify needs of all

Offer options-Involve other party in searching for best possible list of alternatives

Reach agreement- Select a few options acceptable to both and mentally/ verbally test each.

Determine appropriate next steps- Work out an implementation plan and time frame to revisit. Acknowledge progress.

Refers to the ability to guide, motivate, and inspire (Not a formal position).
Refers to the pursuit of specific goals through planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. Is a formalized position, such as a nurse manager. The manager has the authority/power to direct others and accountability/responsibility for meeting goals because of the position.

*Not all managers are leaders.

Leadership (list)
-Often Informal
-Encompasses more area
-Deals with influence over others behaviors
-Require competence in diagnosing, adapting, and communicating.
-Have followers by virtue of personal characteristics
Management (list)
-Narrow concept
-Deals with organizational goals
-Requires technical, human, and conceptual skills
-Authority by virtue of position
-Getting work done through others
Areas of Management Function
-Planning: What is to be accomplished. Determining long and short term objectives of the organization and means to achieve these ends. For examples: planning implementation of new supply system.
-Organizing: Mobilizing human and material resources in order to achieve objectives. For example: determining how much staff on each shift
-Directing: Motivating, leading, instructing personnel to carry out action needed to achieve objectives. For example, instructing staff to take ER admissions immediately.

-Controlling: Comparing results with predetermined standards of performance and taking corrective action when indicated. For example: budget, performance appraisals, quality improvement initiatives.

Emotional Intelligence
characterized by social skills, interpersonal competence, physiological maturity, and emotional awareness that help harmonize to increase their value in the workplace.
Emotional Intelligence (Powerpoint)
Is the ability to understand how emotions function in self and others and to use them effectively.
Components of Emotional Intelligence
-Self-awareness of own emotions and effect on others.
-Managing emotions, self regulation.
-Motivating self and others
-Being empathetic
-Social or people skills.
-Legitimate: from formal position in the organization.
-Referent: People will follow those they admire/like.
-Reward: raises, good assignments, recognition.
-Coercive: threats of punishments
-Expert: specialized knowledge and skills
-Informational: when other want/need your information
-Connection: who do you work with, who you know
-Motivational: ability to inspire and work toward a goal.
Process in which a person who has power shares it others; provides more satisfaction.
Trait Theory
Leaders have a certain set of physical and emotional characteristics that are crucial for inspiring others toward a common goal.
Great Man Theory
-Leaders are born not made
-Emphasized that a person is either born with or without the necessary traits of a leader.
-Leader is charismatic
-Commanding personality, charm, courage, intelligence, persuasiveness, aggressiveness.
Situational-Contingency Theories
-Contingency Theory
– Vroom and Yetton’s
-Path-Goal Theory
Contingency Theory
Leadership will be effective or ineffective dependent on:
-Leader-Member relations
-Task structure is ability to define task and measure progress toward it (or number of correction solutions)
-Position power to use rewards and punishments
Path-Goal Theory (House & Mitchell)
Leader role is to remove obstacles to goal achievement and to reward for completed tasks.
Transactional or Exchange Theory
Clarifies goals, provides needed resources, regulates efforts; rewards those who achieve.
Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
Proposes that a persons behavior occurs because of expectations as to the outcomes of that behavior.
Transformational Leadership
-Emphasis on goals and growth of both leader and follower; de-emphasizes differences in roles.
-Leader motivates others through vision, shared values, and empowerment.
-Have better performance ratings and make a better contribution to the organization
-Not a solution, at times is inappropriate
Transformational Leaders are
-Individually considerate
-Intellectually simulating
Improving Your Leadership Style
-Most important: improve your interpersonal and communication skills.
-Get a mentor: usually someone who is on your level but with more experience, tenure, or one step higher in the organization.
-Keep an open mind, be flexible
-Continue to learn and grow
-Believe in yourself
-Treat others with respect and consideration
Performance Appraisal
Primary function is to communicate how employee is doing with goal of maintaining or improving performance.

Should be based on standard, be objective, applied employee’s work and is trained in the use of the tool and components should be known in advanced by employee.

Should be done regularly but often are not because both the employee and manager get stresses by appraisal.

In nursing we use nursing standards in addition to the job description for performance appraisal.

Need essay sample on "Nursing Leadership & Management: Exam 1"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
Complete Buyer Protection
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy