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Nutrition Ch 20

When mouth tissues become inflamed, initial nutritional recommendations include:
high-protein, high-kilocalorie liquids.
The medical term for difficulty in swallowing is:
dysphagia.
For a client who has achalasia, the diet of choice is:
nutrient-dense liquids and semisolid foods.
The term pyrosis means:
heartburn.
A good meal for someone with xerostomia would be:
stew, mashed potatoes, and pudding.
Xerostomia means dry mouth. Very moist foods are easiest to eat because they require less saliva to chew and swallow.
true or false
A major complication of hiatal hernia is:
bleeding from the herniated portion.
Malignancy is a common development in patients with:
gastric ulcer.
Peptic ulcers occur most frequently in the:
duodenum.
Peptic ulcer disease may be caused by:
Helicobacter pylori infection.
A characteristic symptom of a peptic ulcer is:
abdominal pain between meals.
A basic principle guiding nutritional management of peptic ulcer disease is to eat:
a well-balanced diet as tolerated.
People who have peptic ulcer disease are encouraged to avoid drinking:
tea and coffee.
Diagnosis of celiac disease is confirmed using:
intestinal biopsy.
Grains that should be eliminated from the diets of clients on a restricted gluten diet include:
wheat, rye, and barley.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease that primarily affects the:
pancreas, intestinal tract, sweat glands, and lungs.
Level I routine care of patients with cystic fibrosis includes:
enzyme replacement and vitamin supplements.
The chronic inflammatory bowel disease that involves all layers of the intestinal wall is known as:
Crohn’s disease.
Inflammatory bowel disease that is confined to the colon and rectum is known as:
ulcerative colitis.
During severe acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease, patients should be fed using:
enteral feedings or total parenteral nutrition (TPN).
During remission, patients with Crohn’s disease are encouraged to increase their intake of:
antioxidants.
Patients with short-bowel syndrome usually need parenteral nutrition support only until:
their remaining small intestine adapts.
The small outpouchings that protrude from the intestinal lumen are called
diverticula.
If diverticula of the large intestine become inflamed, the condition is called:
diverticulitis.
The type of diet prescribed for long-term management of diverticular disease is:
high in fiber.
Dietary changes that help reduce the incidence of constipation include
increasing fluid intake.
An appropriate meal for someone with celiac disease would be:
roasted chicken with rice and broccoli.
People with celiac disease need to avoid sources of gluten: wheat, barley, and rye. The bread in the sandwich, the macaroni, and the pie crust would all be made with wheat and would therefore contain gluten.
true or false
Patients with cystic fibrosis need extra:
sodium.
A major clinical symptom associated with hepatitis is:
jaundice.
Medical treatment of hepatitis includes:
bed rest and optimal nutrition.
Adequate dietary protein is essential for recovery from hepatitis because protein:
is needed for liver cell regeneration.
The amount of protein that should be consumed by a client who has viral hepatitis is:
1.0 to 1.2 g/kg body weight.
In patients with viral hepatitis, the major barrier to adequate nutritional intake is:
anorexia.
Pathologic changes in the liver caused by cirrhosis include:
fatty infiltration.
The earliest clinical manifestations of cirrhosis include:
nausea, vomiting, and anorexia.
Development of ascites in clients who have cirrhosis is related to:
protein deficiency.
One effect of impaired blood circulation through the liver caused by fibrous tissue is the development of:
portal hypertension.
Nutrition support for the client who has cirrhosis includes a:
low-sodium, soft-texture, high-energy diet.
A key component in the etiology of hepatic encephalopathy is:
high ammonia levels in the systemic circulation.
Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy include:
confusion and impaired motor function.
The primary objective of treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is to:
remove sources of excess ammonia.
The recommended plan of nutrition therapy for clients who have hepatic encephalopathy is a:
restricted protein and moderately high energy diet.
Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may need parenteral administration of:
vitamin K and zinc.
The gallbladder is stimulated to contract and release bile by:
the cholecystokinin (CCK) mechanism.
Inflammation of the gallbladder is called:
cholecystitis.
The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder is called:
cholelithiasis.
Gallstone formation is promoted by:
high fat intake.
A characteristic clinical symptom of gallbladder inflammation or gallstones is:
pain after eating.
Nonsurgical treatment for gallstones may include:
chemical dissolution of gallstones.
Nutrition therapy for clients who have gallbladder disorders focuses on:
reducing fat intake.
Factors responsible for development of acute pancreatitis include:
alcohol abuse.
The initial diet prescription for clients who have acute pancreatitis is:
to withhold oral feedings.

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