Nutrition chapter 9
you cant control bodu composition but you can control behaviors
obesity is a disease
2) early death
3) surgical complications
4) pressure to gain weight. fat is needed for adequate nutrients
2) extra productivity would pump $73 billion into the national economy
3) can develop heart disease and cancer
this may lead to diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic diseases
2) Heart disease
3) Hypertension (high blood pressure)
4) Gallbladder stones
5) Nonalcoholic fatty liver leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer
Apple body type signals this (older people)
pear is normal (younger people)
Higher levels of physical activity correlate with leanness
two draw backs:
1) fail to indicate how much of a person’s weight is fat
2) where that fat is located
2) waist circumference
3) disease risk profile
Change in energy stores = energy in 2 energy out.
Too much or too little fat on the body today does not necessarily reflect today’s energy budget.35 Small imbalances in the energy budget compound over time.
2) voluntary activities
Women 1300 – 1500 calories
Men 1500 – 1900 calories (they have more muscle therefore a faster metabolism rate)
reflect the needs of only those people who exactly match the characteristics of the “reference man and woman
(Men) EER ± 200 cal. (Women) EER ± 160 cal.
Virtually everyone’s energy requirement falls within these larger ranges:
(Men) EER ± 400 cal. (Women) EER ± 320 cal
Age. The BMR declines by an average of 5 percent per decade, as mentioned, so age is a determining factor when calculating EER values.
Physical activity. To help in estimating the energy spent on physical activity each day, activities are grouped according to their typical intensity.
Body size and weight. The higher BMR of taller and heavier people calls for height and weight to be factored in when estimating a person’s EER.
Growth. The BMR is high in people who are growing, so pregnant women and children have their own sets of energy equations.
Higher Body weight
weight (lb) × 703BMI = height (in.2)
Pregnant and lactating women (because their increased weight is normal during child-bearing).
Adults older than age 65 (because BMI values are based on data collected from younger people and because people “grow shorter” with age).
Women older than age 50 with too little muscle tissue (they may be overly fat for health yet still fall into the normal BMI range)
2) hydrostatic weighting
3) bioelectric impedance
For example, competitive endurance athletes need just enough body fat to provide fuel, insulate the body, and permit normal hormone activity but not so much as to weigh them down.
Cultural habits (cultural or religious acceptability of foods).
Environmental conditions (people often prefer hot foods in cold weather and vice versa).
Hormones (for example, sex hormones).
Inborn appetites (inborn preferences for fatty, salty, and sweet tastes).
Learned preferences (cravings for favorite foods, aversion to trying new foods, and eating according to the clock).
Social interactions (companionship, peer influences).
Some disease states (obesity may be associated with increased taste sensitivity, whereas colds, flu, and zinc deficiency reduce taste sensitivity).
Brain receives signals
Decrease interest in food and meal size – Usually…
Comes from many organs:
Sensations in the mouth associated with greater food intake trigger increased satiation.
Nerve stretch receptors in the stomach sense the stomach’s distention with a meal and fire, sending a signal to the brain that the stomach is full.
As nutrients from the meal enter the small intestine, they stimulate other receptor nerves and trigger the release of hormones signaling the hypothalamus about the size and nature of the meal.
The brain also detects absorbed nutrients delivered by the bloodstream, and it responds by releasing neurotransmitters that suppress food intake.
Hormones and Signals used to sustain feelings of fullness
Leptin is released to alert that food is needed
Ultimately controlled by fat tissues
affected by meal composition.
proteins sate hunger longer than added sugars
-Body organs regulate body fatness
-Brown adipose tissue (BAT)
Genetics and obesity
-Influence tendency to gain weight or stay lean
2) environmental factors- tempted with savory foods
-Available foods (being exposed)
-Human sensations (loneliness, yearning, craving)
-Larger portions (eat the large portions given)
Dopamine is released for a pleasurable feeling after eating. These releases decrease after a while therefore more food is needed to supply this pleasurable high
-Screen time (electronics replaced outdoor play , )
Neighborhoods (unsafe, encouraging)
-Food deserts (no access to fresh, healthy food)
National goals to slow or reverse obesity epidemic
-Depends on what you do
-Water (lose or gain water weight)
Fat or muscle (burning fat/ gaining muscle)
Smoking (stunts appetite)
tobacco related illnesses
-Body adjustments (converts protein to glucose)
-Sacrifice lean tissue for raw materials to make glucose
-Death after 10 days
-Break down of fat molecules to make ketone bodies, the feed the brain when too little carbs are available
-Seems to be tolerated
-Effects of deprivation (increase appetite, damage tissues)
-Overeat or binge eating
Weight loss technique
-Slowing of metabolism
Ketosis upsets the acid-base balance (excess mineral loss)
-DRI minimum carbohydrate intake level (130/day)
-Four sources of energy (proteins, carbs, fat, alcohol)
-Alcohol (converted to fat)
-Two types of energy stores
An excess of any food will become fat
Three realms to produce results:
1) eating patterns
2) physical activity
3) behavior modification
Set achievable goals
Both sides of the coin
Are fad diets nutritious?
Are the diets safe?
Success for the fad-diet industry is built on failure for the dieter
-Minimum calorie recommendations
-Composition of weight loss (weight lost early in dieting may be composed of a greater % of water and lean tissue)
Adequate intakes (of fresh fruit and veggies)
-Supplements (provides vitamins/ minerals
Portion sizes (larger portions increase energy intake)
-Read labels (compare calories per serving)
Meal spacing (three meals a day)
-Snacking (save calorie- free foods for snacks)
-Little daily decisions add up
Low energy density foods (provides more food and greater satiety for the same number of calories)
-May not reflect nutrient density
(nutrient per calorie) low fat milk and soft drinks weigh the same but have different nutritional values
-tricks the brain into craving more calories.
Well-balanced meal plan
-Excess calories from protein, carbohydrates, or fat can make you gain weight
Behavior change (strive to eat healthy foods. stop eating bad foods)
How many pounds/week is safe? a pound or two
-Physical activity alone ( not easily achieved by itself)
Advantages of physical activity
-Feelings of satiation (reduces daily food intakes and heightens the feeling during meals)
-Lean tissue (added healthful tissue, burns more calories
-Bone loss (avoided b proper diet that meets calcium and protein needs
-Stress (promotes restful sleep, reduce food consump.)
-Warning ( non-athletes can negate any calorie burned by eating a “treat”
moderate-to- vigorous aerobic exercise along with strength training
decrease body fat
Burns calories—you get to eat more
increase physical well-being
-Increased daily caloric intake
-Choose nutritious foods (unsaturated fats)
Portion sizes and meal spacing (increase portion sizes; eat frequently)
Physical activity(gain muscle and fat)
-Resistance training (building muscle and increase healthy body mass)
-Over-the-counter (OTC) -medications (No associated with successful weight loose or maintenance)
-Prescription medications (help only temporary while they are being taken)
Obesity surgery (limit a person’s food intake by reducing the size of the stomach and delaying the passage of food to the intestine)
-Extreme obesity (40 or above)
-Not a sure cure (do not lose or gain back the weight)
-Complications (nausea, internal hernia, repeated surgeries)
-Sold as ‘dietary supplements but are harmful to the body’
-Lack of FDA approval because they can have serious consequences like cardiac arrest
-Saunas or steam baths do not melt the fat away. they just get rid of water weight which can lead to dehydration
-Cellulite it is simply fat, awaiting the body’s call for energy. These gimmicks are useless against it
-keeping healthy habits
Self-efficacy and keys to success ( personal belief of success; address small lapses)
-Physical activity (regulatory)
-Weight cycling (yo yo dieting)
Support groups (group support, team work)
-Change thought processes
Food and activity diary
-Don’t attempt to modify all behaviors at once. Set priorities and change them few at a time.
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