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OB Ch 6-11

disadvantage of financial rewards based on membership/seniority
does not directly motivate performance
“golden handcuffs” that potentially increase continuance commitment
membership/seniority based rewards
gainsharing plans tend to
create a strong effort-to-performance (E-to-P) expectancy
which contemporary OB practice was popularized by Fredrick Taylor in his work on scientific management
goal setting
which is a hygiene factor
job security
the degree to which the job affects the organization/society is
task significance
the degree to which employees can tell how well they are doing based on direct sensory information from the job itself is
job feedback
the characteristic of a job that refers to how predictable job duties are from one day to the next is called
task variability
the characteristic of a job that refers to how much the job can be performed using known procedures and roles is known as
task analyzability
what minimizes health risks from repetitive strain/heavy lifting because employees use different muscles and physical positions in the various jobs
job rotation
which is the primary aspect of job enlargement
skill variety
4 dimensions: self-determination, meaning, competence, & impact of the individual’s role in the organization represent
empowerment
the process of influencing oneself to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task is
self-leadership
the process of keeping track at regular intervals of one’s progress towards a goal by using naturally occurring feedback is
self-monitoring
the view that people use logic and all available info to choose the alternative with the highest value is
rational choice paradigm
perceptual defense causes us to
block out bad news or info that threatens our self-concept
the availability heuristic refers to the tendency
to estimate the probability of something occurring by how easily we can recall those events
satisficing refers to
selecting an alternative that is satisfactory or good enough
most accurate view of intuition is
the ability to know when an opportunity exists and select the best course of action without conscious reasoning
programmed decision routines
action scripts
the tendency to experience stronger negative emotions when losing something of value than the positive emotions when gaining something of value is
prospect theory effect
first stage of the creative process
preparation
calculating the conventionally accepted “right answer” to a logical problem
convergent thinking
the experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea
illumination
impromptu storytelling, morphological analysis, and artwork
are forms of associative play
higher level of employee involvement is preferable when
management and employees possess the same info regarding the problem
employees should not make a decision alone when
they are likely to disagree with each other regarding the preferred solution
a task force is
a temporary team that investigates a particular problem and typically disbands when the decision is made
process losses are
resources expended towards team development and maintenance
phenomenon that occurs when people exert less effort when working in groups is
social loafing
work output is exchanged back and forth between employees in
task interdependence
a diverse team is better than a homogenous team when
designing or launching a new product or service
what occurs during the storming stage of team development
members try to establish norms of appropriate behavior and performance standards
team members shift their attention away from task orientation to a relationship focus during
the adjourning stage of team development
a role is a set of certain behaviors that people are expected to perform because
they hold certain positions in a team/organization
major problem associated with team-building activities
they are used as general solutions rather than specific solutions
members of high-cohesion teams
resolve conflicts swiftly and effectively when compared to people in low-cohesion teams
calculus, knowledge, & identification are the three
foundations of trust in teams
what allows employees to collectively plan, organize, & control work activities with little/no direct involvement of a superior
self-directed teams
to manage virtual teams effectively, organizations should
provide documented work processes and clear objectives
the degree to which team members have collective confidence in how well they work together and the likely success of their team effort is
team efficacy
effective communication occurs when
info is transmitted and understood between two or more people
what effect does noise have on the communication model
it distorts and disturbs the sender’s intended message
which of the following communication media is best for transmitting emotion
face-to-face meetings
what are the first three steps of the communication model
form – encode – transmit
flaming refers to
e-mails that convey strong negative emotions
increasing source of info overload
e-mail
emotional contagion occurs when
we share the emotions of other people
capacity of a communication medium to transmit info is referred to as
media richness
which communication channel is most effective when sender wants to persuade the receiver
face-to-face
what is an advantage associated with using written communication channels in persuading people
it is better in presenting technical details
when a sender & receiver belonging to the same group want to send technical info more efficiently, they should use
jargon that they both understand
filtering occurs when
we reduce the amount of negative info so the message sounds more favorable
buffering, summarizing, & omitting are ways to
reduce info overload
what has the same meaning around the world
smiling
report talk is characterized by
apologizing less frequently
the 3 main components of active listening are
sensing, evaluating, responding
collaborative web spaces in which anyone in a group can write, edit, or remove materials
Wikis
management by “walking around” refers to
a practice when executives get out of their offices & learn from others in the organization through face-to-face dialogue
legitimate power occurs when
it is agreed that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others
employees have this type of power over their bosses through feedback and ratings in 360-degree feedback systems
reward
employees have this type of power that ranges from sarcasm to ostracism to ensure that coworkers conform to team norms
coercive power
the perceived ability to manage uncertainties in the business environment is a form of
expert power
people have this type of power when others identify with them, like them or otherwise respect them
referent power
the freedom to exercise judgement in an organization is called
discretion
networking potentially increases a person’s power by
increasing the person’s referent power
your centrality in a social network is determined by your
betweenness, degree centrality, closeness
this refers to any behavior that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behavior
influence
this involves actively applying legitimate and coercive power to influence others
assertiveness
this involves explicitly manipulating others’ access to critical work issues for the purpose of changing their attitudes/behavior
information control
forming a coalition
increases the legitimacy of its desired outcome
a speaker can be more persuasive by warning the audience about potential opposing arguments, which is called
the inoculation effect
this occurs when people or work units oppose the behavior desired by the influencer
resistance
this is the strongest outcome of influence, when people are highly motivated to implement an influencer’s request
commitment
the process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party is called
conflict
the optimal conflict perspective on organizational conflict is that
moderate levels of conflict are necessary and produce favorable outcomes
constructive conflict
encourages employees to re-examine their basic assumptions about a problem and its possible solutions
which of the following best describes relationship conflict
the conflict is between two individuals rather than departments or organizations
when team norms encourage this, team members learn to appreciate honest dialogue without personally reacting to any emotional display during disagreements
emotional intelligence/stability
which source of conflict is typically associated with mergers and acquisitions, where everyone wants the company to succeed, but they fight over the right way to do things
differentiation
situations with these two components produce the highest risk of conflict
scarce resources and high task interdependence
which interpersonal conflict management style represents a purely win-win orientation
problem solving
which conflict management style is associated with low cooperativeness and low assertiveness
avoiding
which conflict handling style is used when resolving a conflict with another department by offsetting losses by equally valued gains
compromising
which conflict management style may be necessary when it is apparent that the other party will take advantage of info sharing and other cooperative strategies
forcing
the yielding conflict management style should be used if
the issue is much less important to you than to the other party
which third-party conflict resolution strategy manages the process and context of interaction between the disputing parties but does not impose a solution
mediation
for everyday disputes between two employees, managers should use this as a third-party intervention
mediation
the bargaining zone model states that
each party moves along a continuum in opposite directions with an area of potential overlap called the bargaining zone
a BATNA
represents the estimated cost from walking away from the relationship

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