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Order-mitigation and risk reduction

In understanding the underlying failure of flood mitigations or preventions, one must understand the reasons of flooding, thus going under the skin of the cause and effect of flooding. The dangers linked with flooding may be alienated into a prime danger that happens due to the excess rain fall itself, and the second contributory factor of flooding is the direct danger towards people, like interruption of services and damage to agriculture or delayed delivery of basic needs to the people and even health hazards like the spread of diseases.

The third contributory factor of flooding is the endangerment of the society as a whole in terms of land loss and river or stream canal dislocation and repositioning. It must be established that all throughout history and even within this century alone, flooding has given the biggest headaches and even heartaches, to not only the government affected by it but most importantly to the people that lose their homes and properties, not to mention the most disastrous of all, the countless lives that are lost. Rain is inevitable.

It falls from the heavens and it dampens and consumes dry land along side everything else on it. Therefore, since flooding still occurs, it would

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be fair to assume that research must be done to further understand the cause and effect of flooding for a more effective mitigation program. Another mistake could be that the City officials may have failed to calculate the consistency of flooding in a given area and just about how much rainfall it would take to flood the city as a whole, if not, certain parts that has shown consistency in flooding.

This could be corrected by measuring existing streams in the vicinity of constant flooding. Thus possibilities may be made in hypothetically assuming just how much rain water would it take to flood a given area, this then could give the government and political individuals in-charge of relief disaster groups. The prime contributory factor of flooding comes directly from the existence of overflowing water itself. The strength of the water comes from its volume. The larger the amount of water, the heavier and more dangerous and difficult it is to control.

Needless to say that flooding is caused by an exaggerated amount of rainfall, or abrupt melt-down of snow. Consequently, levels of rainfall must be examined and watched to supply a hypothesis, or somewhat an intelligent and accurate forecast of flooding. Due to the wrath of the overwhelming water, trees, debris, cars and even houses can be uprooted and destroyed. The massive water weakens the soil, thus contributing to soil erosion. In turn, soil erosion donates to the collapse of even the strongest of building structures.

And even if buildings, or homes, are not totally uprooted and swung into nothingness by the flood waters, the damage it does, not to mention the mess it leaves, last for a very long time. Flooding destroys livelihood of man, including: farms, vegetation and agricultural land. The dirt and the condensed compost and poisonous substances mixed all together with the mud, gives way to the second danger of flooding, which is inevitably geared towards the destruction of human health. The second contributory factor of flooding is the direct result of water, which in this case is the prime contributory factor of flooding.

Nonetheless, the enemy is the water itself. Water as the prime contributory factor, maybe tagged as the cause, and the second contributory factor, may be labeled as the effect. Interruption of services may indeed lead to health hazards like inability to supple potable water to the people in the area of flood. This is totally consistent due to the rain water seeping down the ground and inevitably polluting the water supply of the city. This factor is much more dangerous in third world countries due to undeveloped or unsafe water system.

The supply of electricity is almost always interrupted in which electric lines are cut temporarily for safety measures Traveling becomes impossible because it would indeed be difficult to drive through water, and even if one attempts to do so, it would only be a matter of time when the engine gives in to the fury of the water. The third contributory factor of flooding is the endangerment of the society as a whole in terms of land loss, as well as river (or stream) canal dislocation and repositioning.

Agricultural lands, vegetations and farms may lose its direct water supply from streams when canal repositions itself due to the velocity of the flood water. Jobs are definitely loss when flooding occurs because business stops. Price increases on house to car to life insurances, thus adding burden to the people in the area of flooding. And even then, some political bodies find pleasure in unfortunate situations by misusing the funds intended for relief goods.

With this move, the City Officials, namely: City Mayor, and his Councilmen, must assign strict committees with, if possible, only one individual to handle the release of funds for relief. Everything must be placed in a transparent ledger which would be ready for check and balance by the City Treasurer. Not to say volunteers wouldn’t be welcomed in distributing the relief goods, what must be clearly stated is that only a few, if possible less than three incumbent officers of the city, will have the lock and key in the city’s relief funds, and these individuals would be the City Mayor, Relief Goods Project Chairman and the City Treasurer.

As mentioned, through a consistent watch of how much rainfall it takes to produce a massive flood, a calculated guess may be forecasted by the City Officials whenever there is an immense rainfall. In the course of this consistent act, the City Officials must also entertain the venue of finding out which areas of the city is prone to flooding. As a result, the City will be equipped in readying these areas, not to mentioning allowing the City to be warned ahead of time of the storm that proceeds to threaten the city, in other words, the City may alert the people through a flash flood warning.

In turn the people can equip themselves with the items they need, such as first aid kits, clothing and non perishable items, to head on to safer grounds or evacuation centers. Plus, this would allow the people to secure what they can before the water eats what they spent their whole life saving. Hence these flood prone areas will be placed on the City’s high priority list when the rain starts pouring. A number of recommendations are introduced to aid in the control of flooding for the additional information of the City Official’s existing mitigation plan for disaster specifically on flooding.

One of these recommendations would be the People’s Intercession and Structure Empowerment. Further, improvements in the City’s mitigation plan should include the People’s Intercession. Man, if working together, can move mountains, metaphorically speaking. Man’s modification of land, background, countryside or better, geographical location within the city, may change the existing drainage system, also known as channel, of the City itself which could unstoppably cause erratic changes in the flow of water from the city to the canals, streams, rivers or what have you.

So therefore, any human made modification of terrain is expected to change the usual way rain water depletes from the ground. Therefore men must be careful and must be sensitive when it comes to terrain revision. Further, for flood to be controlled, the City’s drainage canals must be widened or increased, and must be prevented from swerving all over the place because the wider and the straighter the channel, the faster the flow of the rainwater will be due to lesser resistance due to modified and crooked channel.

To wit, it is highly recommended that the channel be concretized for a smoother flow of the water to its discharge location, which could be an open sea, lake or stream. Structure empowerment, on the other hand, are projects that the City Officials must take under serious and grave, so to speak, consideration. Wherein the city’s locals will be asked specifically of acts they may or may not do in order not to disrupt the city’s existing water drainage system. The City must improvise, if not, completely overhaul their canals and structures to give way to massive flooding, seen or unforeseen.

Proposal for Flood Cesspool is highly recommended so that the run-off water coming from the areas located in the heart of the city, or the urban areas or business centrals which inhibit the continuous flow of water to the drainage system due to the concretized tarmac, thus the rain water cannot seep into the ground. Cesspool must be dug underneath the ground to prevent flooding of streets and sidewalks. The cesspool must be directly linked to the flood channels, this would allow a quicker draining of the city’s streets and parking lots and structures.

Therefore, there must be cesspools located in the Urban, or commercialized areas of the city for faster drainage. Additional suggestion in line with the quickest and safest way to respond to the factors contributing to flooding is the Urbanized Tactic and the Authoritarian Approach. The Urbanized tactic proposes channel modifications as cited above to widen and straighten the main canals of the city to create power and speed of a continuous draining of the excess rainfall off land and into some other type of body of water like the sea, a nearby lake or stream.

Dams are also highly recommended in this tactic in fighting flood. It will allow the city to have a location where massive rain water can drain into and it would give the city the power in disposing the water in the rate the City Engineers see fit. The Authoritarian approach on the other hand speaks of no assembly measures. These are strictly notices to the public that is expected to be followed, and may need to be implemented as a law within the city concerned.

Thus the City’s Justice Department would have to work on making resolutions or acts mandating the complete submission to these demands, along side the watchful eyes of the City Police. Restricted areas around the city should be taken into consideration, wherein the City Officials will prohibit migration or structures from being built on these zones. These areas would then be used to provide the city extra ground soil. This way, the water accumulated into the dams and canals can be slowly released for soil absorption.

The City Government is also enticed or encouraged to boot out any existing establishments or homes from flood prone areas by paying through monetary fund. Yes the City will be spending on buying out lands where establishments or homes are located within flood watch areas. Expensive yes, but in the long run it will end up saving the government money because it is the government that pays out all the damages and insurances through endless disaster relief programs after the rain cease.

The Government should also discourage or prohibit, in some way or law or act, any insurance companies from giving high mortgage credit to those people who would like to locate their homes or businesses in obviously flash flood warning areas. References: Schanze, J. (2006). Flood Risk Management: Hazards, Vulnerability and Mitigation Measures. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Code of Federal Regulations (2001). State, Tribal and Local Mitigation Plans. at Title 44, Chapter 1, Part 201 (44 CFR Part 201). Hammer, D. (1989). Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural. Boca Raton, Fla. : Lewis.

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