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org comm midterm

Organizational communication today can primarily be characterized by the S-M-C-R model (the transmission model) of communication
False, constitutive model
Currently, we are functioning in an economy that is primarily made up of the manufacturing and selling of physical goods
False, golbalization- outsourcing, multi-national or international presence, complex interconnections between business, political and cultural systems
There are many organizational types in today’s economy such as social organizations, NPOs, NGOs and cooperatives, creating an additional complexity to our modern organizational society
True
Terrorist organizations are not true organizations
False, true organizations
Systematic soldiering was Taylor’s way of breaking up the social interaction in the work groups that often led to slow production
False, selection process for specific jobs
Communication in classical organizations is highly formal and standardized
True
Today’s organizations are not characterized by
any of the components of classical organizational theory
False; military, universities, fast food industry have components of classical organizational theory
Fayol’s Elements of Management provide an accurate description of what managers actually do on the job
False, provide the “what” and “how”
The machine metaphor includes the characteristics of standardization, specialization, predictability and reliability
False; not reliablility but replacibility
Weber believed that all bureaucracies should resemble open systems
False, closed systems
Negative feedback is deviation-reducing in that it
encourages the system to return to a steady state
True
The three concepts that characterize systems components include interdependence, hierarchical ordering and permeability
True
Hierarchical ordering is a systems principle that implies that the functioning of one component of the system relies on other components of the system
False, interdepedence
The “New Science” systems theory is founded on the notion that all systems in nature and society are like those described by classical physics
False, not all systems
Holism is a property of systems that suggests that a system is more than the sum of its parts
True
In a cybernetic system, enactment serves to maintain the system goal
False, Mechanisms
In Weick’s view of organizing, responding to highly equivocal information requires the use of assembly rules
False, use of communication cycles
The relational tradition of network analysis was a response to the fact that the organizational chart was not the best representation of communication flow within an organization
True
The systems approach is prescriptive-it tells organizations “how to function.”
False, discriptive- how we should study organizations
Network participants who connect disparate groups within the network without membership in
either group fulfill the role of liaison
True
The metaphor is used to describe classical forms of organizing
machine
the classical scholar who is known as the “father of beaucracy”
Max Weber
A term used to describe when workers under classical management would engage in a practice of discouraging one another from working harder
systematic soldiering
Four terms used to describe the machine metaphor
specialization, standardization, replaceability and predictability
The content, direction, medium and style of communication from a classical perspective
task, vertical-downward, written and formal communication
People alter their behavior when being observed
Hawthorne effect
An organizational way of thinking about Maslow’s concept of “self-actualization”
innovation
Classical scholars assume workers work. Human Relations scholars assume workers feel. Human Resources scholars assume
worker’s work, feel, and think
According to Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid, all managers should adopt this form of leadership
team management
This type of manager assumes that workers are highly motivated to satisfy achievement and self-actualization needs
Theory Y manager
This chapter assumes which approach to researching organizational culture? (Hint – “ought to” vs. explanatory)
both prescriptive and descriptive approaches or just both
Values, Heroes, Rites and Rituals, Cultural Networks
Deal and Kennedy’s “Strong Culture”
These management gurus constructed prescriptions for managerial practice through this model
Peters and Watermans “Excellent Cultures”
According to Schein’s model, these are taken for granted, invisible and preconscious suppositions
basic assumptions or level three
Chosen method for many organizational scholars studying culture
ethnography
organisms because they are complex systems that must interact with their environment to survive.
systems metaphor
hierarchical ordering
Embeddedness
Karl Weick Charges that we use these in highly equivocal communication scenarios, according to his theory of sensemaking
communication cycles
This Theory depends heavily on organizational feedback
cybernetic systems theory
A systems theory that argues organizational systems are complex and adaptive systems that emerge from disorder
New Science Systems Theory, Chaos Theory, Complexity Theory, or Self-Organizing Systems Theory
This chapter assumes which approach to researching organizational structures
discriptive
Unitary, pluralist, radical
political frames of reference
traditional, symbological, radical
approaches to power
“Manufactured consent”
hegemony
Control, identification, discipline
Theory of Concertive Control
-Social collectivity
-Organizational and individual goals
-Coordination of activities
-Organizational structure
-Organizational embeddedness
Traditional Elements of Organizations
-NPO’s and NGO’s
-Service organizations
-Cooperatives
-Virtual organizations
-Social organizations
-Diversity
-Irrationality (analogical)
Modern Elements of Organizations
Sender -> Message -> Channel -> Receiver
(manager) -> (overtime) -> (email) -> (employees)
Traditional Elements of Communication
-Rhetorical
-Semiotic (signs & symbols)
-Phenomenological
-Cybernetic
-Sociopsychological (expression, interaction, influence)
-Sociocultural
-Critical
Constitutive Model (model of models)
-Outsourcing
-Multinational or international presence
-Complex interconnections between business, political, & cultural systems
Globalization
-Post 9/11 organizational environment
-Terrorist networks & operations
-Military organizations
-Government entities (i.e. Homeland Security)
Terrorism
-Global warming vs. Larger weather patterns
-The relationship between “the organization” and “the environment”
-Organizations communicating “green” contributions
Climate Change debate
Theories of the Classical Approaches
-Henri Fayol’s Theory of Classical Management
-Max Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
-Fredrick Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
1990: 9% Hispanic, 12.1% Black.
2000: 12.5% Hispanic, 12.3% Black.
1970: 40.3% of households consisted of married couples with their own children; 2000: 24.1%.
1930: 5.4% of population 65 or older.
2000: 12.4% of population 65 or older.
2050: >20% of population 65 or older
changing population (demographics)
-An effective organization is highly structured and each individual knows where he or she fits
-Clear structures and clear rules
-Prescriptive
Fayol’s Theory of Classical Management
Elements of Management (“What”) – Fayol
Planning, Organizing, Command, Coordination, Control
Principles of Management (“How”) – Fayol
Principles of organizational Structure:Power, Reward, Attitude
-Centralization
-Authority and responsibility
-Discipline
Principles of Organizational Power
-Renumeration of personnel
-Equity
-Tenure stability
Principles of Organizational Reward
-Subordination of individual interest to general interest
-Initiative
-Espirt de corps (all for one & one for all)
Organizational Attitude
-“Ideal type” = Bureaucracy
-Closed system driven by rational-legal authority
-Rules, division of labor, hierarchy, the power is centralized
-Individuality discouraged, rationality is the guiding force
Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
-Clearly defined hierarchy
-Division of labor
-Centralization
-Closed systems
-Importance of Rules
-Functioning of Authority
Weber’s “Ideal Type” of beaucratic theory
-Traditional authority
-Charismatic Authority
-Rational-legal Authority (ideal)
Bureaucratic Authority
-Uneven work eliminated through work procedures & time and work studies
-Piecework based on scientific standard
-Systematic Soldiering & social interaction replaced with high turnover rates
-Later became know a “enemy of the working man” because concepts indicated low regard for typical worker
Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
-One best way
>Time and motion studies
-Proper selection of workers
-Training of workers
-Inherent difference between managers & workers
Scientific Management
-The Apprenticeship system
>Uneven work
-Rewards systems
>Piecework
>Rate busters
>Systematic soldiering
Taylor’s Concerns
power based on long-standing beliefs about who should have control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational hierarchy
traditional authority
power is based on an individuals personality and ability to attract and interact with follower
charaismatic authority
power is based on the rational application of rules developed through reliance on information and expertise
rational-legal authority
-Weber – advocated codifying rules in WRITTEN form
-Taylor – one best way led to WRITTEN instructions
-Fayol – the principle of order led to WRITTEN manuals & guidelines
Channels of Communication – Classical Approaches
-Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Plant, Illinois (1924-1933)
-Elton Mayo & Harvard research task productivity in relation to working conditions — 4 tests
>The Illumination Studies (lights)
>The Relay Assembly Test Room Studies (group of women)
>The Interview Program (talk about productivity, workers wanted to talk about feelings)
>The Bank Wiring Room Studies (group of men)
The Hawthorne Studies
-Hierarchy of Prepotency
-Lifelong learning, never ending self actualization
-Individual needs in the workplace
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
assumes that a strong and forceful hand is essential for harnessing the efforts of basically unmotivated workers (i.e. Classical Management).
Mcgregor’s X management theory
family metaphor, it thrives when needs are fulfilled and oppurtunities are provided for self actualization. however there are still distinctions among members of a family.
human relations metaphor
assumption that leaders will be most effective when they exhibit both concern for people and concern for production, thus combining the interests of classical manaagement (concern for production) and human realtions (concern for people)
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
System I – Exploitive Authoritative Organization System II – Benevolent Authoritative
Organization
System III – Consultative Organization
System IV – Participative Organization
Likert’s System IV
motivation through threats and fear, downward and inaccurate cummunication, top level decision making , the giving of orders, and top-level control
System I – Exploitive Authoritative Organization
motivation through economic and ego rewards limited communication, decision-making at the top, goal-setting through orders and comments, and top-level control
System II – Benevolent Authoritative Organization
decisions still made at the top and control still rests primarily at the upper levels of hierachy. however before decisions are made, employees are consulted and their views are taken into consideration
System III – Consultative Organization
decision making is performed by every organizational member, and all goals are set by complete work groups.
System IV – Participative Organization
those who emphasize mental flexibility, team learning, shared visions, complex thinking, and personal mastery. ex. learning disibilities
Learning organizations
organization as embodying a cycle of knowledge creation, development, and application
knowledge management
-Team management
– Employee involvement
– Japanese management systems
– The Scanlon Plan
– Total quality management
– Just in time management
The “What” of Human Resources Programs
1.Employment Security
2.Selective Hiring
3.Self-managed teams and decentralization
4.Comparatively high and contingent compensation
5.Extensive training
6.Reduction of status differences
7.Sharing information
Pfeffer’s The Human Equation- 7 Practices of Successful Organizations
classroom metaphor
metaphor for human resources
systems approach: Descriptive vs. Prescriptive
Prescriptive = Type = How people should behave in and manage organizations
Descriptive = Lens = How we should study organizations.
Molecules = Individuals
Cells = Groups
Complex organisms = Organizations
Species = Populations
Ecology = Social ecology
systems metaphors
systems arranged in highly complex ways that involve subsystems and supersystems. see how systems consists of smaller substystems and is embedded within a larger supersystem
Hierarchical ordering
implies that the functioning of one component of a system relies on other comoponent of the system
interdependence
refers to both system as a whole which must be open to its enviroment and to the components within the system
premeability
-Input and Output
-Materials / products
-Information
-Exchange and degree of permeability
the process of exchange
Throughput interdependent components of a system together
Negative/Corrective/Deviation-reducing
Positive/Growth/Deviation-Amplifying
“Codependence”
the process of feedback
a system is “more than the sum of its parts” – interdependence
Holism
a system “can reach the same final state from differing initial conditions and by a variety of paths” – interdependence
Equifinality
closed systems to “run down”
Enthropy
open systems “thrive”
negative enthropy
the internal workings of the system must be as diverse and complicated as the as its environment”
requisite variety
– Organizations naturally “steer” towards goals.
– System goal
– Mechanisms
– Cybernetic processing – feedback
– Emphasizes: The role of corrective feedback and Interdependence of system parts.
– De-emphasizes:Growth and Environmental influence.
cybernetic systems theory
Information Environment – rather than a physical environment
Enactment – perceived information environments
Equivocality – unpredictability of an information environment
Assembly rules – low levels of equivocality
Communication cycles – high levels of equivocality
Retention – Causal maps
Karl Weick’s Theory of Organizing
– Organizations are “different kinds” of systems
– Systems are not linear seeking equilibrium
– Systems are adaptive, and “order” can emerge from “disorder”
– Complexity
– Fluctuating Information
– Innovativeness at the edge of “chaos”
“New Science” Systems Theory -Chaos Theory, Complexity Theory and Self-Organizing Systems Theory
-Relationships in organizations.
-Participation in organizational processes.
-Organizational change and instability.
-Being open to the information environment.
The importance of new sciences
goods and services
Information
expressions of affect
attempts to influence or control
Network Content
refers to the communication medium through which network linkages are maintained
network mode
highly dense networks is one i which there are many interconnctions among network members, wheres as less dense networks is more loosly interconnected
network density
intraorganizational- networks will look at conncetions among individuals within a given organizations
interorgantaional- networks will consider links among many organizations
level of analysis
the ways in which individuals are connected with each other
-Isolate
-Group Members
-Bridge
-Liaison
network roles
understanding organizational systems can be obtained by closely observing specific organizations grappling with specific issues
-Observation
-Interviews
-Questionnaires
-Archives
case analysis
prescriptive views of culture approach
Deal and Kennedy’s “Strong Culture”
Peters and Waterman’s “Culture of Excellence”
descriptive views of culture approach
Schein’s Model
If an organization has the components of a strong culture, it will be a better place for individuals to work and will improve both individual and organizational performance. perscriptive
-Values
-Heroes
-Rites and Rituals
-Cultural network
Deal and Kennedy’s “Strong Cultures”
Themes emphasize people and downplay bureaucratic structures and values. prescriptive
-Value engineering
1.A Bias for Action
2.Close Relations to the Customer
3.Autonomy and Entrepreneurship
4.Productivity through People
5.Hands-On, Value-Driven
6.Stick to the Knitting
7.Simple Form, Lean Staff
8.Simultaneous Loose-Tight Properties
Peters and Waterman’s “Excellent Culture”
1. Organizational cultures are complicated- 2.Organizational cultures are emergent.
3. Organizational cultures are not unitary. 4.Organizational cultures are often ambiguous. fragmentation Perspective
descriptive approaches to culture
A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid, and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems
1. behavior and artifacts
2. values
3. basic assumptions
Shien’s model of organizational culture
Metaphor for the Critical Theory
chorus
a defining, ubiquitous feature of organizational life
Power
Power is relatively stable and possessed.
Power = control over resources or hierarchical status
Traditional Approach of power
Power is a product of communicative interactions and relationships
Symbological Approach – Interpretive Approach of power
Deep structures produce and reproduce these relationships.
Surface structure vs. Deep structure
Economic, social and communicative relationships
Radical-Critical Approach of power
-Substructure: Society’s economic and production base.
-Modes of Production: Economic conditions that underlie the production process.
-Means of Production: Actual work processes.
control of modes and means of production
-Power relationships are produced and reproduced through organizational discourse.
-Organizational reality is socially constructed through communicative interaction.
Power-charged discourse creates political imbalances.
Control of Organizational Discourse
-“taken for granted assumptions about reality that influence perceptions of situations and events.”
-What exists, what is good and what is possible
-Assumptions
-influences our behaviors
Ideology
– A process by which a dominant group leads another group to accept subordination as the norm.
-Dominant classes shape organizational ideology
Hegemony
“the liberation of people from unnecessarily restrictive traditions, ideologies, assumptions, power relations, identify formations, and so forth, to inhibit or distort opportunities for autonomy, clarification of genuine needs or wants, and thus greater and lasting satisfaction.” -Forums -Dialectic of Control -Resistance – Collective and Individual
emancipation
explain how power relationships can be transformed in an era of team-based and alternative form organizations
-control
-identification
-discipline
Theory of Concertive Control
Simple Control Technological Control Bureaucratic Control Concertive Control
control
when an individual identifies with an organization that individual takes on the concerns of the organization and accepts those concerns as there own
identification
Direct criticism
Use of silence
Social pressure
discipline
Critical theories that explore issues of gender and marginalization in organizational settings
Liberal Feminism
Radical Feminism
Standpoint Feminism
Postmodern Feminism
Pluralist Feminism
“the framing of sexual harrassment”
feminist theories
attempt to show how specific interests fail to be realized owning parly to the inability of people to understand or act on those interests
ideology critique
taking apart a text in order to reveal social and political meanings
“A Real Job”
“Keep a Record”
“Bounded Rationality”
“Accident – Proneness” and “Compliance
deconstruction

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