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Organization Theory

The concepts of power, control, and conflict are dynamic processes existing in a group or the organization. The existence of these processes in groups is deemed as normal. However, modernism, critical studies, and postmodernism perspectives have different views in explaining the inevitable group dynamics. Modernism, as applied to group dynamics, is the state which is described as authoritative yet goal-oriented, optimistic, and analytical when it comes to strategic meeting of goals and execution of plans to avoid conflicts.

From a modernist perspective, the foundation of power should be held by those knowledgeable and competent leaders of the group who have the right to rule and control (i. e. , manipulate or monitor). Also, in view of conflict, it has to be avoided by all means for it hinders productivity. Similarly, critical studies are also objective; the best example is the proposal of leaders to promote change and success in the organization. Critical studies are also liberal for it challenges the beliefs and principles of the members of the group.

Critical studies characterize a social and economic group where the power of persuasion and communication exists. Critical studies value discourse as a dynamic influence of group think and the decision making for the

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whole organization. It views control as the dominance of those major influential group which is more dominant than the other subgroups or outgroups, sometimes resulting in distortion of discourses. It also regards conflict as an unavoidable circumstance in groups caused by normal differences and resistance to change. On the other hand, Postmodernism is grounded on power of social bonding created and maintained in the group.

Control is based on self-monitoring and initiative for self-evaluation. In addition, conflict is resolved by disputing the issues using equal power and participation among the group (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). Gendered Practices in Organizations Upon addressing hegemonic practices, people consent to their own domination. Due to fear of rejection, criticism, and ostracism, a member or a subgroup of the majority group would be likely to conform to the norms and plans of the majority group who have more power and esteem in their organization.

This fear or ostracism represses the idea of a member/subgroup to voice out one’s discrepancies or concerns for the whole group. For protecting oneself from criticism and any other forms of conflict in the group or the organization, women then, resort to consent their own domination. They just accept the reality instead of expect for they think it is useless to complain. Gender bias in the workplace is one good example of this hegemony. Most of the time, groups in the organization are dominated by men. Most promotions are rewarded to male employees who are believed to have more hands-on skills than women.

In so doing, during brainstorming of ideas held in meetings, men are more given opportunity to voice out their ideas and are more likely to participate in the decision making and execution of plans for the company. Therefore, it is evident that women are given less opportunity and freedom than men due to the role and gender expectations that they have to portray in the society. Indeed, there is a need and recommendation for women to enjoy more privilege and opportunities since they are equal with men with skills and abilities (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006).

The above example explains the reality of men-rule theory in organizations. This states that men have more power than women to dominate not only in workplace but in all areas. In order to avoid conflict, it is likely that those member of the group holding lesser power (or the women), would give in to the perceived beholder of greater power (men). As everybody knows, most employers and mangers are men. Who would not follow their orders? Organizational Structures

There are organizational structures namely: simple, functional, divisional (M-form), matrix, hybrid, strategic alliances and joint ventures, multinational and global organizations, network, and virtual organizations. To cite from the eight, simple and functional best describes the organizational structure of my previous company; simple, in a way that the owner or agency manager takes charge of all the decision making in the company. It is fast-paced and simple to manage, yet the structure becomes insufficient once the company increases its population.

The company is also functional in the sense that the organizational design distributes job tasks and responsibilities among employees. Its advantages lie on clarity and simplicity of job specifications, while its disadvantage lies on its inclination to ingroup and outgroup conflicts among the diverse employees (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). Conclusion Power can either be authoritative (modernism perspective), political (critical), or social (postmodernism perspective). Each perception of power from different perspectives has its own advantages and disadvantages depending on how the beholder of power shall use it for the group dynamics.

Power could also be exercised in biased gender practices in the workplace since men are mostly favored than women when it comes to hard skills. Such cases of hegemonic practices could be avoided to prevent discrepancies in the group through frequent and effective communication and compromise in the organization. Conflict can either be viewed productive or counterproductive depending on the nature of the person or group who views the overall organizational structure and objectives of the company.

Moreover, control can be perceived as authoritative for a dominant person or group, but it can also be exercised and distributed equally among members of the group or the organization if everyone participates in brainstorming discourses and exchange of views and feedbacks of newly imposed policies, plans, and processes in the system (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006). Reference Hatch, M. J. , & Cunliffe, A. L. ( 2006). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

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