Our economy grows each day and so does the level of competition and challenge in the business market. Every establishment of the world strives to achieve organizational success through cost reduction and profit maximization. Managers constantly strive to understand the various factors that influence organizational efficiency and productivity. There were periods in history when ethics had hardly anything to do with the art of business. Fraud and exploitation were almost taken for granted in business. For earlier businessmen, if anything they did earned them well, they supposed their business to be on the right track.
Modern business however in course of time, has developed its own ethical perspective. No longer do the businessmen of the present prefer to carry their work unethically. If the hunger to earn more profit has increased tremendously, the ways and methodologies have changed drastically as well. Business ethics are not universally constant entities. What is ethically correct for one might not be the same for some one else. However, we may define our present business ethics as a set of values and principles that allow us to ascertain how far we may go in our endeavor without disrupting our organizational culture.
An organization is a term coined
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If it was once believed that aging retarded productivity, modern researchers have ample evidence to conceive that aging enhances work ethics and powers of judgment and obviously experience. While, many some others believe that aging leads to a loss of flexibility in the workplace and creates resistance advancement in technology. If most of us perceive that age hampers work quality and efficiency, a recent survey confirmed that workers aging more than 50 formed the fastest growing sector in the United States. Workplace absenteeism has always been an important concern related to age.
Many writers have come up with a new concept of the age-absenteeism relationship. It says that an older employee exhibits high levels of unavoidable absenteeism and low levels of avoidable absenteeism and vice-versa for younger workers. Performance of an individual is very much a function of tenure. Productivity and job satisfaction are professed to increase with tenure while there is an inverse relation between seniority and attendance. Gender could also be a critical factor in organizational stability and prosperity.
Although we no longer regard gender as a basis for assessing organizational competitiveness, some cases may arise where a man or a woman is specifically fit for a particular kind of employment. VALUES: Our judgment of what is correct and what is not is primarily decided by a set of convictions that we nurture and abide by. Thus values are ideas that help us pick between right and wrong. Many studies reveal that values grow along with us right from the childhood. How loyally we work and with what intensity and commitment is determined by values. Values also deeply affect our ethics, perception and attitude.
LEARNING: Learning is a never ending continuous process that is an integral part of the life of any person. From the organizational perspective, learning distinguishes between reinforcement and castigation. Weiss defines learning as “Any permanent change in individual behavior that occurs as a result of experience”. ATTITUDE: We know that people have a generally positive attitude if they are satisfied with their work. Thus, attitude determines job satisfaction. Consistency, commitment and involvement in work are also deeply influenced by attitude.
Positive attitude helps creating a healthy culture of trust and mutual respect in the organization. Attitude is thus an evaluative force concerning objects, people and events. Attitude constitutes of three basic elements, namely, the cognitive, affective and behavioral components. The affective component forms the emotional segment of attitude while the behavioral component is mostly visible to the outside and is a consequence of cognitive and affective components. ABILITY: Not only is a manager supposed to indentify the abilities of his or her employees but must also correctly decide which job fits them the best.
Ability is again divided into physical, mental and job based ability. Physical abilities come in handy in jobs based on tough physical work. Every member of the US special operations command is physically trained and skilled enough to combat the most difficult surviving conditions. Only their supreme abilities that they incur from years of tenuous practice and commitment helps them survive such harsh environments. The same is true for a WWE fighter we see on television. Mental abilities help an individual in performing highly intellectual works.
From the modern perspective, intellectual ability is subdivided into social, emotional, cultural and cognitive intelligence. The third kind of ability is the most practically viable aspect of our view. to read quickly which job an individual is best suited is yet another important managerial trait as people perform their best only when they are fit for it. JOB SATISFACTION: A satisfied employee is often seen to have a healthy and cheerful impact on others and the organization as whole. Modern studies have come to believe that a perception of fairness is another crucial ingredient of job satisfaction.
Our performance thus reflects clearly our content about what we do. A feeling of intense satisfaction enhances productivity and retards absenteeism and turnover. Loyalty is also known to be having a deep link with job satisfaction. MOTIVATION: Motivation is a phenomenon that creates and directs intensity in an individual. Motivation inspires the individual to keep going for his goal. Thus, motivation can be regarded a source of psychological energy. Motivation is found to affect organizational behavior thoroughly. Managers are constantly engaged in planning and implementing different strategies to motivate their employees.
Variable pay plans, skill based pay plans, employee involvement and benefit programs are a few steps in this direction. PERSONALITY: Personality is defined as a distinctive pattern of thoughts, feelings, emotions and behaviors that make a person unique. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and Personality remains fairly consistent almost throughout the life of an individual. Personality development takes time and depends heavily on our environment. Elements of personality: • Consistency – A decipherable pattern and order in behavior.
• Physiological and Psychological aspect of personality, which is a function of needs and biological factors. • Impact behaviors and actions are the immediate effects of an individual’s personality. • Multiple expressions – Personality is visible not only through behavior but our thoughts, feelings and social relationships convey a message about it as well. PERSONALITY TRAITS: Self-esteem gives us a reason to like ourselves. It is generally seen that people with high self-esteem are more skilled in risk management and are more innovative in their approach. People with low self-esteem are unable to handle pressure in tense situations.
Self-monitoring abilities are specific managerial skills that influence human sensitivity and are determinants of the extent of our adaptability to varying environments. Machiavellianism, named after diplomat and writer Niccolo Machiavelli, is a term that psychologists describe a person’s tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal interests. A Machiavellianism test distinguishes individuals as high or low Machs. It is believed that high Machs are stronger and more confident people who desire to win in every case while low Machs are those who lead their life more ethicality, with a strong moral fiber.
Individual’s perception of the determinants of a position in the future is known as the locus of control, which is classified as external and internal. People with external loci of control are mostly subdued individuals who prefer to be controlled. Internal locus of control imparts more energy and vigor to one’s personality. Internals wish to control rather than being controlled. Recent studies have reported increased work dissatisfaction and absenteeism to be more associated with externals than internals. EMOTIONS: Emotions are defined as intense, object oriented feelings.
The modern business approach has lead to the creation of a new system of learning that directly rates organizational productivity as directly a function of Emotional Intelligence, which is the ability to process emotional information through the perception, assimilation, understanding, and management of emotions. Some researchers also consider EI as an array of non-cognitive abilities, competencies, and skills that ultimately influences organizational effectiveness. Organizational EI has given way to the evolution of a new class of workers practicing who practice emotional labor.
It is believed that individuals who are aware of their emotions can work more effectively. Managerial skills include a deep understanding of emotions and a strong control over them as emotions can impart significant changes into decisions. Positively directed emotions augment problem solving skills and perception. Emotions may also have a tremendous impact upon motivation. Leadership is the ability of an individual to lead some other individuals. Leadership thus requires that the leader has a complete influence on his listeners. The interaction of the leader with his people is emotional.
An effective leader must learn to control his or her emotions which makes a major impact upon the mass. Individuals often get carried away and lose control of their emotions, engaging in conflicts and disagreements. This can not only be a setback for the individual, but can strongly impact productivity and organizational culture. PERCEPTION: Perception is a process of self organization that enables us to visualize an episode more transparently. An individual interprets his or her impressions of the activities of the world outside. Perception helps an individual to structure his or her work more effectively.
Experience, personality, ethics and motivation are a few factors that have an effect on individual perception. Subsequently, work satisfaction and absenteeism also depend on what meaning the worker extracts of his work. Perception is also a major influence on an individual’s social life and decisions. References: Goleman, D. (2001). Emotionally Intelligent Workplace. New York, United States of America: Bantam Books. http://media. wiley. com/product_data/excerpt/64/07879573/0787957364. pdf http://www. hrfolks. com/articles/orgn%20mgmt/organizational%20behavior. pdf Luthans F. Organisational Behaviour. Tata McGraw-Hill, 2002