Organizational Information Systems
Information systems must be aligned within an organization to provide information that important groups within the organization need and use for its betterment. On the other hand, the organization must be aware of and open itself to the influences of information systems in order to benefit from new technologies. The interaction between information technology and organizations is very complex and is influenced by a great deal of mediating factors, including the organization’s structure, standard operating procedures, politics, culture, surrounding environment, and management decision.
Above pictorial representation shows the complex two-way relationship between organizations and information technology. This complex relationship is mediated by many factors, not the least of which is decisions made or not made by managers with an organization. Other factors mediating the relationship are the organizational culture, bureaucracy, politics, business processes, and chance. The organization’s environment, culture, structure, standard operating procedures, politics and management decisions are all mediating factors that influence the interaction between information technology and organizations.
There is no singular effect of one entity in the whole organizations. Instead, different organizations in different circumstances experience different effects from the same technology. This helps the researchers working in the field to gather valid data and come up with better
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A German sociologist, Max Weber, was the first one to describe these “ideal-typical” characteristics of organizations in 1911. According to him the so called organizations bureaucracies that have certain “structural” features. Bureaucracy is defined as formal organization with a clear-cut division of labor, abstract rules and procedures, and impartial decision making that uses technical qualifications and professionalism as a basis for promoting employees. Organizations that survive over time become very efficient, producing a limited number of products and services by following standard routines.
These standard routines become codified into reasonably precise rules, procedures, and practices called standard operating procedure (SOPs) which are developed to cope with virtually all expected situations. Some of these rules and procedures are written, formal procedures. Most are “rules of thumb” followed in different industries. The differences matter to both managers and employees, and they result in political struggle, competition, and conflict within every organization.
Political resistance is one of the great difficulties of bringing about organizational change—especially the development of new information systems. Organizational Culture is the set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organization should produce, how it should produce them, where, and for whom. Organization culture is a powerful unifying force that restrains political conflict and promotes common understanding, agreement on procedures, and common practices. Given if sharing the same basic cultural assumptions, then agreement on other matters is more likely.
What is need for Inter-organizational Information Systems (IONS)? The word IONS stand for Inter-Organizational Information Systems, as the name indicated within an organization how to make the Information Technology function better by understanding the core demands of business implementing new technologies, which in turn will be helpful for Business needs satisfying the goals aligned on the same paradigm. In order to make the right connection to IOIS structure we must consider how multiple distinct practices can come together and remain aligned.
In addition, to come to grips with persistent alignment of IOIS on long timescales over which even the material form of the systems may change, tackling this problem in a way is quite distinct from the standard IOIS literature, using practice theory notions. One way that organization can influence how information technology will be used is through decisions about the technical and organizational configuration of systems. Today’s new IT infrastructure is designed to make information flow across the enterprise and includes link to customers, vendors, and public infrastructures.
Each organization determines how its infrastructure will be configured for its gains. The formal organization unit or function responsible for technology services is called the information systems department. It is responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprise the firm’ IT infrastructure. The information system department consists of specialists such as programmers, system analysts, project leaders, and information systems managers. In many companies, the information systems department is headed by a chief information officer (CIO).
CIO is senior manager in charge of the information systems function in the firm. End users are representatives of departments outside the information systems group for whom applications are developed. Ultimately anything done by IT is for achieving the Business goals keeping in mind the cost effective solutions to make IT more presentable and demanding. Technology is a material structure which, in social systems, is intertwined with other dimensions of structure that jointly enable and constrain action (Orlikowski, 2000).
In order to understand the role technology plays in shaping social systems it is necessary to understand the nature of this association between technology and other dimensions of structure. At the same time, structure (including technology) does not exist independent of action in social systems (Giddens, 1984). Therefore, understanding the evolution of social systems (and the role played by technology in that evolutionary process) also requires an understanding of the relationship between structure (including technology) and action.
While there have been multiple approaches towards theorizing the relationship between technology and other dimensions, this study covers the organizational Framework and key aspects that consolidate the Hypotheseis. Organizational Framework and Hypothesis The framework outlined in the pictorial representation will give some idea of the points which influence in an organization. The impact of organizational dimension on Information Systems success has continued to be researched using multiple perspectives.
Researchers have used different terminologies including context, variables and factors referring to organizational dimensions. The six factors that influence any organization given are decision making structure, top management’s support to IT Department, goal alignment among Business and IT, Managerial IT knowledge, Management style and Resource Allocation. Looking at all the points mentioned above, clearly covers different aspects at a glance giving a better idea of the integration structure.
Decisions Making structure are defined as the type of control or decision making authority throughout the organization and the extent of participation by organization members. Studies have shown that highly centralized organizational design can result is better management effectiveness for end-users. Top- Management’s support is conceptualized as the involvement and participation of top- level management of an IT/IS activities (Jarvenapaa and Ives, 1991). This is of no surprise that the top management support is of utmost importance for any organization .
Now inorder to work together both IT and the Business needs should have there goals aligned along the same path. For the promotion of Organizational goals and IS plans both should work hand in hand tied to the organizational plans. All of the above mentioned will make more sense if manger has broader IT Knowledge, especially among senior Management. Past studies have shown its key for the Managers to have awareness in Information Technology, their potential to help gear IT in a new direction from their experience.
The style of the Management helps determines the way any company works, Management will have influence on the people working with them to influence, direct and coordinate their efforts to get better results out of people. Resource Allocation is another thing about getting the right people to get the work done. Resources may broadly comprise of people, money and time. All of the above mentioned are important for the successful execution of any project and for that to happen proper planning of all pieces is required.
Scope of research in Future Articulating the different aspects of Information Systems within an organizations potentially some areas of improvement which need more research are covered in this section. Levels of abstraction: Argued before by researchers having used different levels of abstraction for expositional and empirical purposes. We argue that research has to clearly identify the levels of abstraction and analyses that characterize inter firm interactions.
This will help us to clearly understand what causal assumptions define the position of the researchers, allow us to treat each level separately, and finally, enable us to elicit the interactions between various levels of abstractions. Operationalization of Inter organizational system: we argue that interorganizational systems have been inadequately operationalised in the existing literature. The typologies of IONS that have been used in a large number of IONS research prove inadequate to subsume the relevant and important dimensions of IONS.
On the other hand, selective operationalizations place greater emphasis on specific aspects of the system and ignore other facets of inter organizational systems. We propose that interorganizational systems be operationalized in terms of important underlying variables that represent all the useful aspects of IONS. Conclusions In the whole study the presentation of a practical and theoretical perspective is outlined for the purpose of explaining evolution of IOIS. IOIS are evolving into the information infrastructure of whole industries; this change of perspective becomes necessary from both an academic and a practitioner’s point of view.
Theoretical model will allows us to identify and describe IOIS in a standardized way; as the model is theory based, it also allows us to describe possible influences on the evolution of IOIS as these factors are implicated in the processes that explain the very existence of IOIS, namely structural reproduction and materialization and legitimization. This paper contributes to theory in the information systems discipline by presenting a theory of IOIS in which the on-going persistence and change of these large-scale systems is treated as a practical and socio-material accomplishment of communities of practice.
The information technology and system component is modeled in terms of boundary practices and structures. The approach is novel and contrasts with existing rational theories presented in the past. References Brynjolfsson E. & Mendelson S. (1993) Information Systems and the Organization of Modern Enterprise Chatterjee, D. & Ravichandran, D. (2004) Inter-organizational Information Systems Peter D, & and Beth Plale (2001) A Unified Relational Approach to Grid Information Services Ralph S. & Reynolds G. (2009) Principles of Information Systems Sean E. (2005) Inter-Organizational Information Systems in the Internet Age