Quality assurance process involves taking responsibilities for quality throughout project’s life
Validated changes and validated deliverables are the outputs of quality assurance process.
The design of experiments technique cannot be applied to project management issues such as cost and schedule trade offs.
Customer requirements are an important aspect of quality planning process.
Reliability is the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under deviant conditions.
Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects.
Only in-house auditors can perform quality audits.
Products that are accepted by project stakeholders are considered to be validated deliverables.
A run chart is a bar graph that depicts data points and their order of occurrence.
Using Six Sigma principles is an organization-wide commitment and all employees must embrace its principles.
The term sigma means median.
Testing is an important stage only at the end of an information technology product development.
Integration testing involves testing of each individual component to ensure that it is defect-free as possible.
In TQC, product quality is more important than production rates, and workers are allowed to stop production whenever a quality problem occurs.
The Six Sigma approach works best for a project where a quality problem is identified between the current and desired performance.
DeMarco and Lister’s study on organizations and productivity found direct correlations between productivity and programming language, years of experience and salary.
Gantt charts cannot be used to aid project quality management
Conformance to requirements
project’s processes and products meet written specifications
Fitness for use
product can be used as it was intended
Outputs of Planning quality management process of project quality management
1) process involvement plan
2) quality metrics
3) quality checklists
standard measurement in quality management
Associated technical tools and techniques of quality management for quality control process
often associated with:
1) Pareto charts
2) quality control charts
3) statistical sampling
Executing process of project quality management
subprocess is performing quality assurance
Outputs of monitoring and controlling subprocess of project quality management
1) validated changes
2) validated deliverables
Design of experiements
technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on overall outcome of a process
degree to which system performs its intended function
system’s special characteristics that appeal to users
addresses how well a product or service performs the customer’s intended use
ability of product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions
addresses case of performing maintenance on product
generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside performing organization
refers to action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements or specifications or other stakeholder expectations
correct(s) or prevent(s) further quality problems based on quality control measurements
graphic display of data that illustrates results of process over time
help users to identify vital few contributors that account for most quality problems in a system
choosing part of population of interest for inspection
Six sigma’s target for perfection
achieve no more than 3.4 defects, errors, or mistakes per million opportunities
5 phase improvement process used by projects using six sigma principles for quality control
define phase of DMIAC tools
– project charter
– description of customer requirements
– process maps
– VOC data (voice of customer)
analyze phase of DMAIC tools
– fishbone (Ishikawa diagram)
bell-shaped curve symmetrical regarding average value of population (data being analyzed)
any instance where product or service fails to meet customer requirements
six 9s of quality rule
measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunities problems
done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible
user accpetance testing
independent test performed by end users prior to accepting delivered system
Deming’s 14 points for management
1) create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service
2) adopt new philosophy
3) cease dependence on mass inspection
4) end practice of awarding business on price tag alone
5) improvement constantly and forever system of product and service
6) institute training
7) institute leadership
8) drive out fear
9) break down barriers between staff areas
10) eliminate slogans, exhortations, and target for workforce
11) eliminate numerical quotas (removing annual rating or merit system)
12 remove barriers to pride of workmanship
13) institute a vigorous program of education and retraining
14) take action to accomplish transformation
Juran’s 10 steps to quality improvement
1) build awareness of need and opportunity for improvement
2) set goals for improvement
3) organise to reach goals
4) provide training
5) carry out projects to solve problems
6) report progress
7) give recognition
8) communicate results
9) keep score of improvements achieved
10) maintain momentum
Quality is free 1979
– written by Crosby
– best known for suggesting that organizations strive for zero defects
– quality system standard
– 3 part
– continuous cycle of planning, controlling, and documenting quality in an organization
cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that project is error-free or within acceptable error range
external failure cost
cost that relates to all errors not detected and not corrected before delivery to customer
– integrate traditionally separate organizational functions
– set process improvement goals and priorities
– provide guidance for quality processes
– provide point of reference for appraising current processes
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