Pay and Motivation
Worker beliefs that ‘outcomes are not tied to one’s performance’ can also escort to noteworthy motivation problems, especially lack of trust. This is normally accompanied by feelings of scepticism or disbelief; precisely the emotions that another manager felt when one was told early on change effort that power would be allocated differently. Employee beliefs that ‘outcomes will not be satisfying to one’ often escort to a third major problem, chronic dissatisfaction, and to feelings of anger, rebelliousness, low morale and absenteeism. (Miner, 2002)
Like as the negative emotions allied with change can often go undetected, the motivation and performance problems that cause them frequently remain hidden and unresolved. Due to this, managers who lead change are sometimes frustrated in their efforts. They fail to realise that it is not enough to appeal to the intellect of their workers. So managers must also win employees’ hearts in order to implement change successfully. The reason behind why are motivation problems so difficult to uncover is that employees are afraid to speak about them or even admit that they exist like at Gap Inc.
Though most employees know when they have a motivation problem, many feel that acknowledging it is tantamount to admitting failure, and, naturally, they do not want to appear weak or incompetent to their manager. The belief system approach is practical method that can help manager at Gap Inc. resolve these problems effectively. It takes the guesswork out of the search for motivation problems and alerts managers to the three principal types: • Motivation problems caused by a lack of confidence. • Motivation problems caused by a lack of trust.
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• Motivation problems caused by a lack of satisfaction. The approach is based on the expectancy theory of motivation and on the research of Yale University professor Victor H. Vroom. In conducting Vroom’s analyses of why motivation improvement so often fails, Vroom came to the conclusion that motivation at work depends on certain employee expectations or beliefs: that effort will lead to performance, that performance will lead to outcomes, and that these outcomes, when received, will be satisfying.
(Thomas, 2004) Like other expectancy theorists, Vroom maintained that the tendency of people to act in certain ways depends on the strength of the expectation that their actions will be followed by certain outcomes and on the perceived value — or “valence” — of those outcomes. This combination of expectation and valence is what determines people’s behaviour, Vroom and colleagues argued, and unless both expectation and valence are present to some degree, there will be little or no motivation to act.
For example, if a person wants a certain outcome but doesn’t feel it can be achieved through one’s efforts, then that person won’t be motivated. Similarly, that person will also lack motivation if one believes that a certain outcome can be achieved but is undesirable. The application model relies on structured, facilitated meetings between managers and their direct reports to find the answers to the three basic questions that uncover motivation problems:
• Does the employee believe that one’s effort will lead to the expected performance? • Does the employee believe that outcomes will be tied to one’s performance? • Does the employee believe the outcomes will be satisfying? Preconditions for Employee Motivation AT Gap Inc. managers have to note that an employee is motivated to perform when • The employee believes that effort will lead to performance. • The employee believes that performance will lead to outcomes. • The employee believes that outcomes will lead to satisfaction.
AT Gap Inc. once a manager has recognised a specific motivation problem, one can then work with the employee to find its cause and develop an appropriate solution. There are several reasons that this model performs far better than managers expect such as: • This model prepares managers and employees for solving motivation problems by getting them to think about these issues before they meet. • This model promotes effective change by clarifying expectations, uncovering hidden agendas, and managing emotions before they escalate.
• This model relies on the cooperation and involvement of the one person who knows most about the problem and what may be causing it: the employee. (Caruth, 2001) By gently forcing an accurate diagnosis of problems and their causes, the belief system model increases the prospects of finding good solutions to performance shortfalls. After all, it takes information to solve problems, and the goal of the belief system model is to uncover critical information about performance and motivation and to guide managers and employees in applying it productively.
The model works to generate an environment in which managers and employees divide the responsibility for solving performance problems, and it fosters the kind of communication that helps managers maintain the critical preconditions for employee motivation: confidence in their ability to meet performance expectations, trust in others to tie outcomes to performance, and satisfaction with their job and the outcomes that they receive.
Butkus T. Raymond, Thad B. Green, (1999), Motivation, Beliefs and Organisational Transformation. Quorum Books. Westport, CT. Cameron Judy, Pierce W. David, (2002), Pay and Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Bergin & Garvey. Westport, CT. Caruth L. Donald, Handlogten D. Gail, (2001), Managing Compensation (And Understanding It Too): A Handbook for the Perplexed, Quorum Books. Gorman Phil, (2003), Motivation and Emotion. Routledge. New York.