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Perennial Weed Management Tactic

Perennial weeds are weeds which survive on, for subsequent years. Their shoots commonly arise from buds located at random along horizontal roots, and they commonly arise from buds located just above the bend as the horizontal root turns downward; in contrast, lateral, roots normally arise from buds located just below the bend. Perennial weeds sprout from tubers, bulbs, rhizomes and modified stems. Cardaria species e. g. Control of Hoary Cress The extremely persistent reproductive roots, with abundant food reserves, are responsible for the survival and perennial nature of these species.

Control by clean cultivation will require 3 consecutive years of intensive tillage to kill the root system of any of these Cardaria species. Cultivation should begin early in the spring when the plants are in the bud stage and repeated after every 21days, using a duckfoot cultivator set for 4 inches deep or other blade-type implement. The vertical roots disintegrate from the top down when decay starts following repeated cultivations (Anderson, 1999). Late-sow crops, such as corn, barley, or beans are effective competitors.

Perennial grasses or winter wheat, plus the use of 2, 4-D as a selective herbicide, are also effective control measures. Herbicides labelled for control of these Cardaria species include

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2, 4-D and MCPA for use in croplands (e. g. , small grains and sugarcane); amitrole-T (Amitrole) for use in woody ornamentals and non-crop areas; metsulfuron-methyl (Escort) for use in pastures and rangelands; chlorsulfuron (Telar) and sulfmeturon (Oust) and 2, 4-D for non croplands.

In conclusion, each of these herbicides is applied post-emergence to the Cardaria species; Escort, Oust, and Telar are also effective as pre-emergence treatments. Others members of Cardaria species include Lens-podded White top and Globe-podded Whitetop. References Anderson, W. P (1999). Perennial weeds: characteristics and identification of selected herbaceous species. Danvers: Wiley-Blackwell.

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