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Personal Health

Which of the following individual choices has a major effect on both current health and projected life expectancy?
The medical model of health would most likely focus on which of the following?
Treating bacterial infections with antibiotics
The number of years a person is anticipated to live based on conditions at the time of birth is
life expectancy
Which of the following were cited by college students in a national survey as major impediments to performing well academically?
Stress, anxiety, and sleep difficulties
What is the leading cause of death in the US across all age groups?
Heart disease
Heart disease, cancer, and diabetes are examples of
hereditary disease
Since the early 20th century, the life expectancy of Americans has
increased by more than 30 years
Life expectancy 100 years ago was largely determined by
susceptibility to infectious disease
The term HEALTH is often interchangeable with the term
Jerome eats healthy foods, exercises regularly, gets eight hours of sleep each night, and rarely becomes ill. His ability to ward off illness is related to which dimension of health?
Jasmine has many friends, is respected by her coworkers, and maintains a great relationship with her boyfriend. Her ability to interact with others exemplifies which dimension of health?
Rashid volunteers weekly to help pick up trash in his neighborhood. This action contributes to improving which dimension of his health?
Which of the following best describes emotional health?
Ability to express or control feelings
Which of the following best describes spiritual health?
Possessing and expressing a purpose in life
The first step in modifying your health behavior to achieve overall wellness is to
become aware of individual behaviors that contribute to or detract from your health
The range of factors that influence a person’s health status are known as
determinants of health
Determinants of health include
genetic and lifestyle factors
Which of the following methods is an example of successful lifestyle change?
Beginning a daily walking program and gradually increasing your time and distance
Jackson made a goal to quit smoking by the end of the year through a lot of hard work and willpower. When he achieved this goal, he bought himself a new car. This is an example of
positive reinforcement
Mark is a junior in college and plans to move to his own apartment before his senior year. He hopes to quit drinking, get more sleep, and spend more time exercising and studying instead of spending so much of his free time on Facebook. The best plan for Mark to succeed is for him to
select the most important behavior to change and take things one step at a time.
Which of the following factors would be considered a nonmodifiable determinant of health?
Poor housing, lack of funds for adequate food and clothes, and insecure employment are which type of factors that negatively affect human health?
Maria’s husband has agreed to join her in an exercise program. They’ve scheduled times to meet to run at a local park. This is an example of
social support
Agents in the physical environment that can be harmful to health include which of the following?
Which of the following groups of actions would most likely reduce a person’s risk of premature death?
Not smoking, avoiding junk foods, and maintaining a healthy weight
Health disparities are differences in the levels of health and disease among specific population groups, such as the low-income or uninsured.
More people across all age groups die from cancer than any other chronic disease.
Daily choices influence an individual’s health status and well-being.
According to morbidity and mortality statistics, in the 21st century, a person is more likely to die from an infectious disease rather than from a chronic disease.
The average life expectancy for an American child born in 2014 is 78.5 years.
Obesity creates a burden on the overall U.S. economy.
Life expectancy may decline in coming years due to the prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles.
Today, the concept of adaptability is a key element in the overall definition of health.
Positive reinforcers are punishments for not accomplishing goals.
Spiritual health encompasses more than simply religious beliefs.
Attaining the optimal level of well-being for your unique limitations and strengths is known as wellness.
Healthy People 2020 is the Surgeon General’s health promotion plan to improve the quality of life and years of life for all Americans.
Global warming, decreased water supplies, and toxic chemicals are serious health threats with far-reaching effects worldwide.
Economic status and geographic location have very little influence on a person’s health status.
Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and illegal drug use result in direct and indirect costs to society.
The term psychological health encompasses which four dimensions of health?
Mental, emotional, social, and spiritual
People who feel good about themselves, deal effectively with life’s challenges, and have positive social relationships are known as
psychologically healthy.
Lana is entering college in the fall. She will be living away from home for the first time and will be responsible for managing her own schedule and finances. If Lana is psychologically healthy, she will react to this situation by
becoming more independent.
Intensified feelings or complex patterns of feelings that we experience are known as
The ability to listen, to express oneself, to act responsibly, and to form healthy attachments with others are important aspects of
social health.
A family situation in which there is violence; physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; parental discord; or other negative interactions
may psychologically damage family members.
Extroversion, introversion, and level of emotional stability are
personality traits
Adele values her unique qualities and abilities and has a realistic sense of her worth as a person; she would be described as having a high level of
Studies suggest that happiness may
reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease.
Which statement is true about mental health?
Mental health problems can affect all age groups and are prevalent among college students.
Which of the following is the most common mood disorder?
major depression
Erin is concerned because she has been feeling discouraged by her circumstances and is experiencing feelings of guilt, worthlessness, sadness, and despair. Based on her symptoms, which of the following conditions would be a likely diagnosis?
Which type of anxiety disorder occurs after a violent or extremely negative event and can cause acute anxiety or nervousness, nightmares, flashbacks, insomnia, and a state of dissociation?
Lizbet seems to be on an emotional roller coaster. Her moods swing from one extreme to another, from a euphoric high to major depression. Lisa is most likely suffering from
bipolar disorder
Which statement is true about depression in men?
Suicide rates among depressed men are four times those of depressed women.
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder that involves an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation?
Heather is always tired, tense, and irritable. She has difficulty concentrating on routine tasks and trouble sleeping. She’s had these symptoms for the last six months. Her behavior is most characteristic of
generalized anxiety disorder
Psychological health encompasses the mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of health.
A psychologically healthy person becomes easily frustrated by stressful situations.
The term emotional health is often used to describe the “thinking” aspect of psychological health.
Personality is genetic and can never be changed.
Children raised in a nurturing, happy environment are assured of psychological health as adults.
A person’s social and intellectual health are unaffected by emotional health.
The communities to which an individual belongs have no impact on psychological health.
Self-esteem includes taking pride in your accomplishments.
To achieve subjective well-being, one must learn to be happy and upbeat all the time.
Laughter may lower an individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease.
Depression is the most common anxiety disorder.
Mental health problems often affect academic and work performance.
A person who has been depressed for an extended period of time is at an increased risk for committing suicide.
An ongoing state of physiological arousal in response to ongoing or numerous perceived threats is
chronic stress
An example of a tangible stressor is
a confrontation with an angry coworker.
A school examination is an example of a(n)
The physiological state in which the body’s systems are functioning normally is known as
An example of an event that is likely to be associated with eustress is
getting a promotion at work
Debilitating tension and strain are associated with negative stress, also known as
Physiological responses such as increased heart rate and blood pressure occur in response to stress during which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
The reaction that occurs in our bodies when we perceive danger is the
fight-or-flight response
The function of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is to
return the body to a state of homeostasis
You are speeding down the highway and see the flashing lights of a police car in your rearview mirror. Your heart begins to pound as you slow down, but the police car passes you in pursuit of someone else. Your physical reaction occurs at which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
As part of the stress response, the hormone epinephrine is released. What are some of the changes that are triggered in the body due to its release?
heart and respiratory rates increase
What is the function of cortisol during the stress response?
it mobilizes nutrients to be available for energy
Carrying a heavy course load, working at a demanding part-time job, and having ongoing conflicts with her roommate resulted in Jana becoming so mentally and physically drained that she ended up in the hospital. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome had she reached?
The 2012 Stress in America survey reported which two concerns to be the leading causes of stress in American adults?
money and work issues
Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of long-term stress?
Long-term stress can lead to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and weight gain.
Steps you can take to reduce stress include
exercising regularly and learning to laugh at life’s ups and downs.
Increased plaque build-up in the arteries and increased blood pressure can indicate a direct relationship between stress and
cardiovascular disease
According to studies in psychoneuroimmunology, how does long-term stress affect immunity?
Long-term stress impairs the body’s ability to fight infection.
Environmental stressors of which people are often unaware are
background distressors
A student who gets good grades, is president of her sorority, and works 25 hours a week at her job would likely be experiencing stress due to
Feeling extremely burdened by the demands made on us is a state known as
Low self-esteem and low self-efficacy are which type of stressors?
Being quick to anger, distrusting others, and having a cynical attitude are toxic characteristics of which personality type?
type a
Effective coping strategies that can help alleviate daily stress include
being realistic and managing your time
A healthy way to deal with anger is to
express it constructively
Relaxation techniques are used for stress management because they
calm anxiety and improve coping skills
Effective time management practices involve
prioritizing your tasks and doing one thing at a time.
Regular exercise helps in stress management by
raising endorphin levels and improving mood
Both eustress and distress can trigger the fight-or-flight response.
The body’s stress response can be triggered by a dangerous situation that is completely imaginary.
Chronic stress may cause weight gain.
A tangible stressor is a thought or fear that initiates a stress response.
Stress has been identified as one of the key modifiable risk factors for heart attack.
A person with a high stress level has an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Higher incidences of the common cold among college students during finals week can be related to impaired immune functioning due to stress.
In the long run, minor hassles are never as stressful as major life changes.
Health care professionals who work long hours are particularly prone to stress, overload, and burnout.
Students from other countries who attend college in the United States without a strong social support network will likely experience more stress-related illnesses than American students.
Living in a dangerous neighborhood is considered an environmental stressor.
When people use cognitive restructuring, they focus on learning to manage stress by modifying how they think and talk to themselves.
The key to resolving conflict in a relationship is
having open and honest communication with your partner
The characteristic of intimate relationships that causes feelings of love is
emotional attachment
Intimate relationships cannot exist without
emotional availability
Inez reminds Leo often that he is a great person and that he matters a lot to her. Which relationship need is Inez fulfilling?
In our early years, our most significant relationships are those with
Healthy love relationships and friendships both require
trust and respect
Which two psychological factors influence your ability to establish and maintain healthy relationships?
self-concept and self-esteem
What is one of the most important components of a satisfying and stable relationship?
effective communication
The release of which substance results in a sense of calm, peacefulness, and security while with a lover?
An important aspect of effective communication is
understanding nonverbal communiction
A professor may share information about his experiences as an undergraduate with his students. If done in a positive way, this type of self-disclosure may
help students deal with current issues in their lives
The objective of being a good listener is to enhance relationships by
understanding what others are thinking and feeling
A slouched posture or leaning forward toward the speaker are examples of
body language
Your friend Joey describes the fight he had with his girlfriend and you respond, “It sounds to me like you’re angry with her for never being ready on time.” Your response is an example of
Which of the following is true about nonverbal communication?
If verbal and nonverbal communication don’t match, the listener is more likely to believe the nonverbal cues.
Two key components to resolving conflict within relationships are
negotiation and compromise
Breakdowns in relationships usually begin with changes in
Attentive listening encourages future discussion.
Nonverbal communication, such as body language and facial expressions, are not generally noticed much by others.
Conflict resolution is an effort to resolve differences peacefully and creatively.

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