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Pests and pest Control

Pests
any organism that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome
Examples of Pests
Plants, or animals. Such as formosan termite, fire ants, aedes mosquito, medfly
Why do we need pest control?
Because there are many organisms out there that we don’t like, and we want to keep their populations low or even wipe out.
Why control pests?
To protect our food, to protect our health, for our convenience
Pesticide use in the United states
We have used pesticides for a long time. Before WW11 we used elements such as arsenic and sulfur to control pests. Post WW11 we developed chemicals such as DDT. Most chemicals are used to control agricultural pests.
Chemical Technology (pest control)
-use of chemicals to kill large numbers of the pest.
-short-term protection
-environmental and health consequences
Consequences of chemical pest control
-we kill large numbers but typically only for a short period of time and we need to use over and over again
-also many non-target impacts, particularly on human health with insecticides
Ecological pest management
-control based on pest life cycle and ecology
-control agent may be an organism or chemical, or biological control
Integrated Pest Management
“using all suitable methods-chemical and ecological-in a way that brings about long-term management of pest populations and minimal environmental impact”
Define Integrated pest management (IPM)
-specific to pest and/or manipulate a part of the ecosystem
-emphasizes protection from pest
-most of what is promoted today in agriculture, b/c it tries to bring long-term management into play by minimizing the application of chemicals
First generation pesticides (inorganic)
-first attempt at chemical technology
-toxic to humans and agricultural plants (didn’t break down)
-pests developed resistance
Second-generation pesticides
-used after ww11
-organic chemicals
-toxic to humans and agricultural pants (basically just as bad)
-pests developed resistance
DDT: the magic bullet
-extremely toxic to insects; seemed nontoxic to humans and other animals
-cheap
-broad-spectrum and persistent
-effective for diseases prevetion (typhus fever, malaria)
-expanded agricultural prodcution
-Paul Muller awarded Nobel Prize in 1948
Aerial Spraying
-common and old way of applying chemicals
-by planes spraying chemicals over areas of land
-highly controversial in some places, while accepted in others
Development of resistance by pests
-chemical pesticides lose effectiveness
-resistance pest populations produce next generations
Resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks
-after “eliminating” a pest, its population rebounds in even high numbers than previous levels
-outbreaks of species’ populations that were not previously at pest levels
adverse environmental and human health effects
-can causes sicknesses in people
Examples of human health effects
-cancer, dermatitis, neurological disorder, birth defects, sterility, endocrine system disruption, immune system depression
-agricultural workers suffer acute poisoning during pesticide application
-aerial spraying and dumping bring pesticides in contact with families and children
-soldiers exposed to agent orange in Vietnam suffered high rates of cancer and other disease
DDT led to decline in populations of several bird species
-bald eagle
-peregrine falcon
DDT has also lead to..
-bioaccumulation
-biomagnification
Define biomagnification
from tiny concentrations in water up to high concentrations in fish eating birds. b/c of this we started to ban many pesticides in the 1970s
non-persistent pesticides
-substitutes for banned pesticides
-breakdown after a few weeks
-can stil be harmful because of:
1) toxicity
2) dosage
3) location
Alternative pest control methods
-cultural control
-control by natural enemies
-genetic control
-natural chemical control
Parasitic Wasps
-good example of one insect killing another that we can take advantage of
Examples of genetic control
-chemical barriers
-physical barriers
-sterile males
-genetic engineering
Ex of chemical barrier
hessian fly
ex of physical barrier
sticky glandular hairs
example of sterile male insects
botfly larvae
ex of genetic engineering
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis– a bacterium that produces a protien killing larvae of many insect pests, making it so pests don’t like the plant anymore
Natural chemical control
-a volatile chemical produced by the opposite sex of a species which alters the reproductive behavior of the opposite sex
-perfumes
-colognes
-after shave
-natural body odors
Natural chemical control (b.)
-manipulation of pest’s hormones or pheromones to disrupt the life cycle
-jap beetle trap
-hormones are very common way of confusing pests
IPM
-an approach to controlling pest populations using all suitable methods
-chemical ecological–in a way that brings about long-term management of pest populations and also has minimal environmental impat
Concerns with pesticides
-pesticides need to be evaluated for both intended use and impacts on human health and the environment
-protection and proper training of those who work with pesticides
-public protection from risks of pesticide residues on food products
Pesticides and policy
-FIFRA: federal insecticide, fungicide and Rodenticide act: concerns 1 & 2
-FFDCA: federal food, drug and cosmetic act: concern 3
-FQPA: food quality protection act: concern 3
Pesticides in developing countries
-us exports> 200,000 tons of pesticides each yr= $1. billion (25% banned in this country)
-PIC: prio informed consent= exporting countries inform all potential importing countries on bans to restrict pesticide or other toxic chemicals

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