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PM ch9

Chapter 9:
Human Resource
Chapter 9 introduces the first facilitating knowledge area, project human resource management
This chapter covers many important topics, and whole courses are devoted to improving human resource management. Review basic topics, such as motivation, and emphasize what project managers and teams need to know to make effective use of human resources.
•Explain the importance of good human resource management in projects
including the current state and future implications of the global IT workforce
•Define project human resource management and understand its processes
•Summarize key concepts for managing people by understanding the theories of Abraham Maslow
Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Douglas McGregor on motivation; H. J. Thamhain and D. L. Wilemon on influencing workers; and Stephen Covey on how people and teams can become more effective
•Discuss human resource planning and be able to create a project organizational chart
responsibility assignment matrix, and resource histogram
•Understand important issues involved in project staff acquisition and explain the concepts of resource assignments
resource loading, and resource leveling
•Assist in team development with training
team-building activities, and reward systems
•Explain and apply several tools and techniques to help manage a project team and summarize general advice on managing teams
•Describe how project management software can assist in project human resource management
The Importance of Human Resource Management
Project human resource management deals specifically with planning, acquiring, developing, and managing human resources for project teams. Although many topics in this chapter are similar to those covered in courses on human resource management, there are unique aspects of managing people in a project environment,
such as resource loading and resource leveling. Take some time to discuss the current state of human resource management and the job market for IT workers in your area. Also review the “What Went Wrong?” about the need for IT workers to improve communication skills.
1.Give an example of a hygiene factor, as defined by Herzberg.
Answers could include a more attractive work environment, training, or fringe benefits, such as a good parking space or casual dress, and so on. Herzberg also states that money is a hygiene factor.
2.What type of chart is used to show resource loading?
A histogram
3.What do the letters RAM stand for as they relate to project human resource management?
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
4.What does RACI stand for in a RACI chart?
A RACI chart is a type of RAM that shows Responsibility, Accountability, Consultation, and Informed roles for project stakeholders.
5.What types of influence are correlated with successful projects?
Expertise and work challenge
• coercive power
using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do
• deputy project managers
people who fill in for project managers in their absence and assist them as needed, similar to the role of a vice president
• empathic listening
listening with the intent to understand
• expert power
using one’s personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior
• extrinsic motivation
causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty
• hierarchy of needs
a pyramid structure illustrating Maslow’s theory that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs
• intrinsic motivation
causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment
• issue log
a tool for managing project teams where the project manager documents, monitors, and tracks issues that need to be resolved in order for the project to run smoothly
• legitimate power
getting people to do things based on a position of authority
• mirroring
the matching of certain behaviors of the other person
• Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
a popular tool for determining personality preferences
• organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
a specific type of organizational chart that shows which organizational units are responsible for which work items
• overallocation
when more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time
• power
the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do
• RACI charts
charts that show Responsibility, Accountability, Consultation, and Informed roles for project stakeholders
• rapport
a relation of harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity
• referent power
getting people to do things based on an individual’s personal charisma
• resource histogram
a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time
• resource leveling
a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks
• resource loading
the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during specific time periods
• responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)
a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the WBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
• reward power
using incentives to induce people to do things
• staffing management plan
a document that describes when and how people will be added to and taken off a project team
• subproject managers
people responsible for managing the subprojects that a large project might be broken into
• synergy
an approach where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts
• team development
building individual and group skills to enhance project performance
• Tuckman model
describes five stages of team development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
96.List and briefly describe the four processes involved in human resource management.
Human resource planning involves identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. Key outputs of this process include roles and responsibilities, an organizational chart for the project, and a staffing management plan.
Acquiring the project team involves getting the needed personnel assigned to and working on the project. Key outputs of this process are project staff assignments, resource availability information, and updates to the staffing management plan.
Developing the project team involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance. Team-building skills are often a challenge for many project managers. The main output of this process is assessing team performance.
Managing the project team involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project performance. Outputs of this process include requested changes, recommended corrective and preventive actions, updates to organizational process assets, and updates to the project management plan.
97.Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. How does it relate to information technology projects?
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. Once safety needs are satisfied, social needs come to the forefront, and so on up the hierarchy. The order of these needs and their relative sizes in the pyramid are significant. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite for the levels above.
For example, it is not possible for a person to consider self-actualization if he or she has not addressed basic needs concerning security and safety. Once a particular need is satisfied, however, it no longer serves as a potent motivator of behavior.
The bottom four needs in Maslow’s hierarchy—physiological, safety, social, and esteem needs—are referred to as deficiency needs, and the highest level, self-actualization, is considered a growth need. Only after meeting deficiency needs can individuals act upon growth needs. Self-actualized people are problem-focused, have an appreciation for life, are concerned about personal growth, and have the ability to have peak experience
Most people working on an information technology project will probably have their basic physiological and safety needs met. If someone has a sudden medical emergency or is laid off from work, however, physiological and safety needs will move to the forefront. To motivate project team members, the project manager needs to understand each person’s motivation, especially with regard to social, esteem, and self-actualization or growth needs.
Team members new to a company and city might be motivated by social needs. To address social needs, some companies organize gatherings and social events for new workers. Other project members may find these events to be an invasion of personal time they would rather spend with their friends and family or working on an advanced degree.
98.What are the five main types of power? Briefly describe each type.
Coercive power involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do things they do not want to do. This type of power is similar to Thamhain’s and Wilemon’s influence category called penalty. For example, a project manager can threaten to fire workers or subcontractors to try to get them to change their behavior.
If the project manager really has the power to fire people, he or she could follow through on the threat. Recall, however, that influencing using penalties is correlated with unsuccessful projects. Still, coercive power can be very effective in stopping negative behavior.
Legitimate power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority. This type of power is similar to the authority basis of influence. If top management gives project managers organizational authority, project managers can use legitimate power in several situations. They can make key decisions without involving the project team, for example. Overemphasis of legitimate power or authority also correlates with project failure.
Expert power involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their behavior. If people perceive that project managers are experts in certain situations, they will follow their suggestions. For example, if a project manager has expertise in working with a particular information technology supplier and their products, the project team will be more likely to follow the project manager’s suggestions on how to work with that vendor and its products.
Reward power involves using incentives to induce people to do things. Rewards can include money, status, recognition, promotions, special work assignments, or other means of rewarding someone for desired behavior. Many motivation theorists suggest that only certain types of rewards, such as work challenge, achievement, and recognition, truly induce people to change their behavior or work hard.
Referent power is based on an individual’s personal charisma. People hold someone with referent power in very high regard and will do what they say based on their regard for the person. People such as Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, and Bill Clinton had referent power. Very few people possess the natural charisma that underlies referent power.
99.What is a staffing management plan?
A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the project team. It is often part of the project management plan. The level of detail may vary based on the type of project. For example, if an information technology project is projected to need 100 people on average over a year, the staffing management plan would describe the types of people needed to work on the project, such as Java programmers, business analysts, technical writers, and so on, and the number of each type of person needed each month
It would also describe how these resources would be acquired, trained, rewarded, reassigned after the project, and so on. All of these issues are important to meeting the needs of the project, the employees, and the organization.
The staffing management plan often includes a resource histogram, which is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
100.What are the five stages of the Tuckman model? Briefly describe each stage.
The staffing management plan often includes a resource histogram, which is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time.
2. Storming occurs as team members have different opinions as to how the team should operate. People test each other, and there is often conflict within the team.
3. Norming is achieved when team members have developed a common working method, and cooperation and collaboration replace the conflict and mistrust of the previous phase.
4. Performing occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process. Relationships are settled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towards each other. At this stage, the team is able to manage tasks that are more complex and cope with greater change.
5. Adjourning involves the break-up of the team after they successfully reach their goals and complete the work.

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