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PMP Certification – Chapter 3

Process
Is a set of interrelated actions and activities to create a pre-specified product, service or result. Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that can be applied and the resulting outputs.

Organizational process assets provide guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s processes to the specific needs of the project.

In ford for a project be success , the project team should:
– Select appropriate processes required to meed the project objectives
-Use a defined approach that can be adapted to meet requirements
-Establish and maintain appropriate communications and engagement with stakeholders
-Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs and expectaions
-Balance the competing constraints of scope, schedule, budget, quality, resources, and risk to produce the specified product, service or result.
Project processes are performed by the project team with stakeholder interaction fall into one of two major categories
– Project Management Processes – Ensures the effective flow of the project throughout its life cycle.
-Product oriented – Specify and create the project’s product. Typically are defined by the project’s life cycle and vary by application area as well as the phase of the product life cycle.

Project management processes and product-oriented process overlap and interact throughout the life of a project.

Project manager and teams should carefully address each process inputs and outputs and determine which are applicable to the project they are working on.

Project management is an integrative undertaking that requires each project and product process to be appropriately aligned and connected with the other processes to facilitate coordination. In some circumstances, a process or set of processes will need to be iterated serveral times in order to achieve the requried outcome.

The Five Project Management Groups or Process Groups
– Initiating process group – Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization at the start of the phase.
– Planning process group – Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
-Executing process group – Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.
– Monitoring and controlling process groups – Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.
-Closing process group – Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.
3.1 Common Project Management Process Interactions
The project management processes are presented as discrete elements with well-defined interface, however the overlap and interact.

Project Management Process Groups are linked by the outputs which are produced.

Process groups are:
– Seldom either discrete or one-time events
– They are overlapping activties that occur throughout the poject
3.2 Project Management Process Groups
The 5 process groups are independent of application areas or industry focus. Process Groups and individual processes are often iterated prior to completing the project and can have interactions within a Process Group and among Process Groups.

THE PROCESS GROUPS ARE NOT PROJECT LIFE CYCLE PHASES. It is possible that all Process groups could be conducted within a phase. As projects are are separated into distinct phases or subcomponents, such as concept development, feasibility study, design, prototype, build or test, etc., all the Process groups would normally be repeated.

3.3 Initiating Process Group
Consists of those processes performed to to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. Within the Initiating processes, the initial scope is defined and initial financial resources are committed.

The purpose of the Process Group is to align the stakeholder’s expectations with the project’s purpose, give them visibility about the scope and objectives, show how their participation in the project and its associated phases can ensure that their expectations are achieved. These processes help to set the vision of the project – what is needed to be accomplished.

In large complex projects, the Initiating processes are carried out during subsequent phases to validate the decisions made during the original Develop Project Charter and Identify Stakeholders processes. The Initiating processes at the start of each phase helps to keep the project focused on the business need that the project was undertaken to address.

Project Boundry
The point and time at which the start and completion of the project or project phase is authorized.
3.4 Planning Process Group
Consists of those processes performed to establish the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, and develop the course of action required to attain those objectives.

The PM plan and project documents developed as outputs for the Planning Process Group will explore all aspects of the scope, time, cost, quality, communications, human resources, risks, procurements and stakeholder engagement.

Progressive Elaboration
Progressive detailing of the project management plan indicating that planning and documentation are iterative and ongoing activities.
Executing Process Groups
consist of those processes performed to complete the work defined in the proejct mamangement plan to satisfy the project specifications. This Process Group involves coordinating people and resources, managing stakeholder expectations as well as integrating and performing the activities of the joject in accordance with the project management plan.

Result may require planning updates and rebaselining. May include changes to expected activity durations, changes in resource productivity and availability and unanticipated risks.

3.6 Monitoring and Controlling Process Groups
Consists of those processes required to track, review, and orchestrate the progress and performance of the project; identify any key areas in which changes to the plan are required and initiate the corresponding changes.

Key benefit to this Process Group is that the project performance is measured and analyzed at regular intervals, appropriate events ore exception conditions to identify variances to the plan.

In multiphase projects, the Monitoring and Controlling Process Groups coordinates project phases in order to implement corrective or preventative actions to bring the project into compliance with the PM plan.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Involves
-Controlling changes and recommending corrective or preventative action in anticipation of possible problems.
-Monitoring the ongoing project activities against the project management plan and the project performance measurement baseline
-Influencing the factor that could circumvent integrated change control or configuration management so only approved changes are implemented.
3.7 Closing Process Group
Consists of those processes performed to conclude all activities across all activities across all PM Process Groups to formally complete the project, phase or contractual obligations. When completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all of Process Groups to close the project or a project phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or phase is complete.

This Process Group also formally establishes the premature closure of the project, e.g. aborted or canceled projects, etc.

The following occur at project or phase closure
-obtain acceptance by the customer to formally close project
-conduct post-project or phase-end review
-record impacts of tailoring to any process
-document lessons learned
-apply appropriate updates to organizational process assets
-archive all relevant project documents in the project management system (PMIS) to be used as historical data
-close out all procurement activities ensuring termination of all relevant agreements
-perform team member’s assessments and release project resources.
3.8 Project Information
Project data are continuously collected and analyzed during the dynamic context of the project execution.

The following guidelines help minimize miscommunication and help the project team use appropriate terminology:

– Work Performance Data – raw observations and measurements identified during activities performed to carry out the project
-Work Performance Information – Data collected from various controlling processes analyzed in context and itegrated based on relationships across areas.
-Work Performance Reports – The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents intended to generate decisions or raise issues, actions or awareness.

3.9 Role of Knowledge Areas
The 47 project management processes identified, are further grouped into 10 separate Knowledge Areas. A Knowledge area represents a complete set of concepts, terms, and activities that make up a professional field, project management field, or area of specialization. These project areas are used on most projects most of the time an should be used specific to the project.
10 Knowledge Areas
-Project Integration Management
-Project Scope Management
-Project Time Management
-Project Cost Management
-Project Quality Management
-Project Human Resource Management.
-Project Communication Management
-Project Risk Management
-Project Procurement Management
-Project Stakeholder Management
Variance
Is a deviation from your plan, something you did not expect. Better discover the variances early in your project.

To calculate a variance you will need a plan that yields a target or standard and the ability to determine actual results. Variances can be favorable or unfavorable. Contrary to what people think, neither variance is desirable, although favorable is more desriable.

Variances are also a major component of the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group.

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