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Poli Sci 102 Chapter 12

Foreign policy
Framers thought congress should set foreign policy
Electoral College
538 electors, 435 in House, 100 in Senate, 3 from DC
To win presidency, a candidate needs simple majority (270) votes
Order of Electoral College
President
Chief legislature
Chief Economist
Party leader
Chief diplomat
Commander in Chief
Chief Executive
Chief of State
Chief Economist
Submits a national budget
Also establishes a regulatory and economic environment in which businesses must operate
Federal Reserve Board and its chair play a crucial role in managing the economy
Chief diplomat
President creates and administers foreign policy, can act more unilaterally than with most domestic policies
Has authority to enter into an executive agreement based on constitutional authority, do not need senate approval
Appoints ambassadors to other nations
Commander in Chief
Supreme military commander, decides where to send troops into battle (congress declares war) sets military strategy
Chief Executive
Appoints secretaries of the cabinet and heads of other federal government agencies who develop and implement the administration’s policy
Chief of State
Executive embodiment of values and ideals of the nation, both in and out of US
Vice President
First in line of succession if president dies
Sometimes a liaison with congress
“balanced ticket” to broaden their appeal to the electorate and increase their changes of getting elected presidents pick a vp of diversity
Cabinet
group of experts chosen by the president to serve as advisers on running the country
Made up of the heads of each of the executive departments, newest department is department of Homeland security (bush)
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
Typically the launch pad for the implementation of policy, help president carry out day-to-day responsibilities of the presidency and similarly assist the First Lady and vice president in their official activities, also coordinates policies among different agencies and departments
White House Office
staff develops policies favored by the presidential administration and protect the president’s legal and political interests
Keeps president informed on policy decisions
Ensure that laws are administered in keeping with the president’s expectations
Chief of staff (adviser to president and manager of WHO), press secretary(spokesperson to the media), White house counsel (lawyer)
National Security Council
domestic and foreign matters related to the national security
Created by Truman administration, NSC has advised presidents on key national security and foreign policy decisions and assisted them in the implementation of those decisions by coordinating policy administration among different agencies (CIA military)
Office of Management and budget OBM
Creates presidents annual budget, which president submits to congress, entails all of the expected revenue and expenditures
Succession
Vp, Speaker of the House, President pro tem of Senate, then by cabinet
25th Amendment
if a president believes he is unable to carry out duties of office then president must notify congress and the vp will become acting power
Presidential powers enumerated in the Constitution
Serve in commander in chief of the armed forces
Appoint heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, supreme court justices, people to fill vacancies that occur during the recess of the senate, and other positions
Pardon crimes, except in cases of impeachment
Enter into treaties (2/3 consent from senate)
Give the state of the union address to congress
Convene the congress
Receive ambassadors of other nations
Commission all officers of the united states
Take Care Clause
gives presidents ability to assert additional powers beyond those in the constitution
“the executive power shall be vested in a president of the united states of America and he shall take Care that all the Laws be faithfully executed”
On the basis of this presidents have asserted various inherent powers , powers inferred by the constitution but not expressed
Statutory Powers
Powers explicitly granted to presidents by congressional action
Special Presidential Powers
Executive Orders
force of law, same weight as congressional statues and have been used in a variety of circumstances to guide the executive branch’s administrative functions
Direct the enforcement of congressional statues or supreme court rulings
Enforce specific provisions of the constitution
Guide the administration of treaties with foreign governments
Create or change the regulatory guidelines or practices of an executive department
Emergency Powers
broad powers that a president excersises during times of national crisis
United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp
Executive Privilege
authority of the president and other executive officials to refuse to disclose information concerning confidential conversations or national security to congress or the courts
United States v. Richard M. Nixon, the court asserted that although executive privilege existed, Nixon’s claim was too broad
The President and the Bully Pulpit
Ready access to the public ear and broad power of the president to communicate
Using bully pit presidents communicate that their stances on issues are the right choices and should be supported
Also try to persuade public that they are doing a good job
A popular president will have less trouble convincing Congress to act with them
Honeymoon Period
a time early in a new president’s administration characterized by optimistic approval by the public
Approval Ratings
percentage of survey respondents who approve or strongly approve the way the president is doing his job
Rally ’round the flag effect
approval ratings go up during short term military action or terrorist attacks
Impeachment
House of reps accuse president of crimes
Charges of “Treason, bribery or other high Crimes and misdemeanors”
Articles of Impeachment
If House of Reps majority votes to impeach, the charges are sent to Senate
Whig/constitutional theory
Presidency is a limited office, can only do whatever congress authorizes
Andrew Jackson
The “People’s Tribute”
Stewardship Theory
President should do whatever the people need him to do unless it is prohibited by law
Everyone since FDR has followed it
Who is directly responsible for electing the president?
members of the Electoral College
Which of the following is not a presidential responsibility?
head of the judiciary
responsibilities include:
party leader
chief legislator
commander-in-chief of the military
The president participates in the legislative process when
submitting a budget.
vetoing or signing acts of Congress.
leading support for a new bill.
In setting foreign policy, the president can
negotiate treaties with foreign countries.
War can be declared by
Congress.
The president’s role as chief executive is to
determine how the bureaucracy will implement laws.
Presidential power
grew enormously during the presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
A bill can only become law over the president’s veto by an act of
Congress.
What is the vice president’s most important function?
to serve as first in the line of succession
Which of the following special powers does a president have?
the power to issue orders that carry the force of law
the power to withhold information from Congress and the courts
the power to take emergency measures during times of national crisis
What occurs during an impeachment?
The House of Representatives formally accuses the president of crimes.
The heads of the departments of the executive branch
serve as an advisory board.
Who or what helps carry out the day-to-day responsibilities of the president?
the Executive Office of the President
The newest cabinet department is
the Department of Homeland Security.
Which of the following first ladies used her influence during her husband’s administration to lead a campaign to “just say no” to drug use?
Nancy Reagan
The number of electors in the Electoral College is primarily based on
number of members of Congress.
The president can convene the ________ as required.
Congress
The president receives advice and consent from the ________ regarding treaties.
Senate
The annual budget submitted by the president is
a recommendation that Congress can choose to follow.
The president provides economic leadership
by setting goals.
by regulating banking.
through appointment of the Federal Reserve Board and its chair.
An executive agreement is like a treaty except that it
needs no Senate approval.
Of the following choices, which president exercised his veto power the least?
G. W. Bush
President Obama’s choice of Joe Biden was intended to appeal to what segment of the electorate?
those who doubted his experience
Presidents can designate other advisors to cabinet rank. Typically, these would include
both the national security advisor and the director of the Office of Management and Budget.
The White House Office is primarily focused on
seeing that the president’s policies are enacted into law.
Which organization is part of the Executive Office of the President?
the National Security Council
The Office of Management and Budget is primarily focused on
proposing the next annual expense budget.
proposing the next annual revenue budget.
administering current operations within the current budget.
Inherent powers have been used
by many presidents.
to suspend civil liberties.
to meet unusual circumstances.
Executive orders
direct the actions within the executive branch.
clarify the enforcement of federal laws.
alter existing guidelines in managing executive branch departments.
The president’s power as leader of his political party
was significantly expanded by populist Andrew Jackson.

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